Biomolecules (Updated)

By Adem Lewis / in , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , /

Captioning is on! To turn off, click CC button at bottom right! Follow the amoebas on Twitter (@AmoebaSisters) and on Facebook. I want you to think for a moment about your
very favorite food. What is it? Pizza? Macaroni and cheese? Chicken Salad? Sushi? Well we
all have different food preferences, but food is a source of large molecules that are needed
for life called biomolecules. There are 4 major biomolecules that make up all of life,
and this will be the focus of this video. Before we get into details about the 4 biomolecules,
we need to talk about one very important vocabulary word. The word monomer. A monomer
is a building block – if I had some large substance, the parts that make up that substance
are called monomers. Just like building blocks. We’re going to talk a lot about monomers today, because we need to understand what the biomolecules are made of. And we need to understand biomolecules, because they’re building components of life. So let’s introduce the 4 biomolecules now and talk a little bit about their functions. We’ll start with carbohydrates. Carbs. Well carbs are something you have
probably heard about when people are talking about diets. You know, they try to go low
carb or maybe they want a lot of carbs…diets always come and go. Pasta and breads are examples
of foods heavy in carbohydrates. Carbs are actually a very important source of energy.
In fact, that’s one big function of carbs. They are a great, fast source of energy. If
you were a marathon runner, you might want to eat a lot of carbs the night before a race. Lots of marathon runners do this. It’s called pasta loading. They eat a big pasta dinner
the night before they go out on their marathon. Now carbs have a monomer- again, remember,
monomers are building blocks. The monomer for a carb is called a monosaccharide. I know
that’s a big mouthful but monosaccharides make up carbohydrates. Next one up is a diverse group known as lipids. Lipids are better known as fats. They have 2 different types of building blocks. One type of building block is called a fatty acid and the other type is called a glycerol. Now examples of lipids include butter, oil, and cholesterol. Lipids, though, they have a lot of great functions. You may think well that’s fat…how good can fat
be? Well it just depends when you put it into context. For example, you know those really
adorable seals that you see on calendars? They have this fluffy white hair. They’re
actually called a harp seal. Well they actually only look like that when they’re babies. When they get older, they’re not quite as cute. But in their little baby stage, they
actually have a lot of this hair that they’re born with that help keep them warm. But over time,
they have to develop blubber. It’s fat and it helps keep them warm. Lipids are great
for insulating. Also you might not think about fats as being related to energy, but fats
are a great source of long term energy. They can store energy for a long, long time. Say
for example you wanted to swim the English Channel. That’s like 21 miles of swimming.
The fastest swimmers might be able to do that in 7 or 8 hours but it might take a lot longer
than that for the average swimmer. More like 25 hours, and that’s a lot of swimming. Well
you would want to make sure that your body has enough lipids- enough stored fat- that
it can pull upon. Because after you burn off those carbohydrates (remember carbs are the fast source of energy), you might not have enough energy storage unless you have some lipids on hand.
Lipids also make up cell membranes so they are very important for life because all living things are made of cells. Of course an
excessive amount of lipids could be a bad thing for your health. Remember it’s all about
moderation. Ok, next, proteins! When you hear about proteins,
a lot of times you might think about protein bars. They say they have lots of protein in
them and that they help with muscle building. Well protein is great for muscle building. Examples
of foods that are high in protein include meats and many types of beans. The monomers
of protein are amino acids. So sometimes you see these labels that say, “This has 20 amino
acids in this food.” Really they’re just trying to say that it has protein, and proteins are
made up of amino acids so that’s just some fancy advertising for you. But in addition to it being important for muscle development, protein is also very important in other functions such as working in the immune system and acting as enzymes. Remember enzymes are made of proteins
so proteins are important for the body. Now when we start talking about genes – the DNA genes not the jeans you wear- the DNA codes for proteins that are very important for structure and function in the body. The last big biomolecule is known as a nucleic
acid. Nucleic acids include DNA and RNA, which we’ll get to when we get to genetics. They
have a monomer called a nucleotide. That’s going to be an easy one for you to remember
because nucleotide sounds a lot like nucleic acid. If considering DNA and RNA, both of these
are involved in genetic information for the coding of your traits. They are found in a
lot of your food, because whenever you eat something that came from something once living,
it can still contain the DNA. For example, when you eat a strawberry, you’re actually
consuming all the cells that make up that strawberry. In the nucleus of all of those
strawberry cells is DNA. Plants and animals both have DNA. In fact, any type of life must contain nucleic acids like DNA to direct the cells’ activities. So we just powered through introducing the
4 biomolecules by providing examples, exploring their monomers, and giving some general functions.
One last very important part to mention is the structure of these biomolecules. Understanding
the structure can help with predicting their properties and easily being able to identify
them. One thing I like to tell students to do is to write the 4 biomolecules in this
same order we went through: carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Then remember
this mnemonic device that goes with these 4 biomolecules. CHO, CHO, CHON, CHONP. Instead
of chomp at the end with a “m,” it’s chomp with an “n.” The c stands for carbon, the h stands for
hydrogen, the o for oxygen. So carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids all have that
CHO in there. It’s just that proteins and nucleic acids also have an N which is nitrogen
and nucleic acids additionally have a P which is for phosphorous. So again CHO, CHO, CHON,
CHONP—the major elements in the 4 biomolecules. Now these elements are arranged differently in the 4 biomolecules—such as a ring arrangement or a chain arrangement. It’s important to
explore the arrangement of the elements in biomolecules, because the structure of that
arrangement greatly impacts the biomolecule function. So to the Google to discover some
biomolecule arrangement illustrations. Well that’s it for the Amoeba Sisters and we remind
you to stay curious.

100 thoughts on “Biomolecules (Updated)

  1. You are the best! So helpful videos.
    I am a mother going to college….got an A in biology because of you !
    My son 8 grader is doing well in science because of your help !

  2. Who else is fine with their biology teacher, isn’t failing biology, isn’t cramming for an exam, but are just curious to learn more about biology?

  3. The “building blocks” are polymers made of individual monomers and the biomolecules are called macromolecules. All are polymers except lipids….for clarification. Your exams might want you to specify

  4. This does cover lots of basic bio-molecular information, but it's sad how much random misinformation you had throw in. Wish you could have left out strong implications that eating fats is necessary/somewhat healthy in 'moderation' because 'hur durp fat = insulation and seals use this so why don't humans'. Also saying amino acids is just fancy code for 'protein' in nutrition. It just always pains me to see such a well made video that so many people see, and your small uninformed personal opinion you deduced from your own knowledge is now falsely spread to million who will now spread wives tails among their family. People will deduce from this that 'Some butter in moderation is healthy because our bodies need fats, right?' People won't understand

  5. Thank you! How can I get a copy of the worksheet? I have tried downloading last year..but now, I can't find the button….

  6. If you are not fat adapted, you can't use the fat stores effectively. This is why so many endurance athletes are on a keto diet. Otherwise great video.

  7. Thank you Amoeba Sisters! I'm taking college Physiology and needed to brush up on my Bio! "CHO CHO CHON CHOMP," you guys are LEGENDS!!!

  8. Where's the original one? It went over how the different macros had to work together? I went to the link to the old one and it took me to a water video. Please help?

  9. entiendo más biología con 3 videos de este canal que con 30 clases de dos horas con mi profesor

  10. Got the bio keystones in a couple of hours and I know my dumbass is gonna fail but we out here trying 😔👊

  11. Lipids also have nitrogen and phosphorus when they are complex which is the case of phospholipids found in the cell membrane. Simple lipids like triglycerides and wax are the ones that do only contain C, H and O. Great contribution to my learning nonetheless.

  12. I found this video to be very helpful! I watched all of three times and I gained a concrete understanding of what the 4 chemical building blocks to life were. Thank you😭💗💪🏾

  13. So all animals have their own structured amino acids (proteins) so when we consume their already built proteins that will affect us as we require a different structure


  15. We've seen a few comments attempt to use or critique parts of this video for human dietary guidelines. But this video, as stated in the description, focuses on general functions of biomolecules. The biomolecules: carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, can all can have important functions in the body. However, this video is not giving human dietary guidelines and should not be used in any attempt to do so. This is a video about the biomolecules. For your dietary needs, consult with a dietitian or medical doctor.

  16. My biology teacher didn't even teach us anything. He just sent us the link to this video and said, " quiz tomorrow". Wish me luck!😂

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