BLOOD TRANSFUSION REACTIONS | Hemolytic, Febrile, Allergic, Bacterial, TACO, TRALI, GVHD

By Adem Lewis / in , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , /

Hey there, friend! In this video we are talking about the different
kinds of blood transfusion reactions that you need to know about in nursing school. And if you like this video, write LOVE in
the comments below and of course, subscribe to this channel so you don’t miss out on any
other nursing school tips and resources that I have for you. Now let’s do this! So blood transfusion reactions are obviously,
pretty scary, and they could range from mild to severe and life threatening. A blood transfusion reaction happens when
the patient’s body doesn’t like the blood we are giving it, or there’s an issue with
the blood. So let’s walk through some of the different
types of blood transfusion reactions. The first one we’ll talk about is an allergic
blood transfusion reaction. It happens when the patient’s immune system
reacts to little proteins in the donor blood that triggers the patient’s immune system. It could range from mild itching to severe
anaphylaxis. The second one is a febrile blood transfusion
reaction. This one happens when the patient’s antibodies
attack some of the donor’s white blood cells. This leads to a fever, hence the name of a
“febrile transfusion reaction.” The next one we’ll talk about is a hemolytic
blood transfusion reaction. And this one happens when the patient receives
blood that isn’t the right blood type, meaning it’s incompatible. When this happens, the patient’s immune system
makes antibodies to attack the donor blood cells. This causes destruction of the donor red blood
cells. This is why it’s SUPER important for you to
accurately ID your patient and do all of your checks before you do a blood transfusion. You need to make sure you’re giving the RIGHT
patient, the RIGHT blood. The next type of blood transfusion reaction
we’ll talk about is a bacterial transfusion reaction, where the donor blood is contaminated
with bacteria and then given to the patient, causing the patient to become septic. This can be fatal. We have a whole video walking you through
the pathophysiology of sepsis step-by-step, so be sure to check that one out after this
video. Now let’s talk about Transfusion Associated
Circulatory Overload (or a TACO for short). This is just like it sounds, circulatory overload. The infusion is too much and/or too fast for
the patient’s body to handle, and the heart can’t keep up, and fluid backs up into the
lungs. This is kind of similar to another blood transfusion
reaction called a Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury (or TRALI for short). However, researchers aren’t totally sure what
causes a TRALI. This happens when the patient develops rapid
fluid buildup in the lungs and severe difficulty breathing, but it is NOT due to the amount
of blood being given or anything wrong with the blood itself. And finally, let’s talk about transfusion-associated
graft-versus-host disease (or ta-GVHD). This type of blood transfusion reaction is
very rare, but almost always fatal. This happens when the DONORS white blood cells
attack the RECIPIENTS cells, and the recipients cells aren’t able to kill them. It mostly happens in patient’s who are very
immunocompromised, which is why their immune system isn’t able to fight off the donor blood’s
immune cells. The donor cells mostly attack the liver, GI
tract, skin cells, and bone cells. So those are the main types of blood transfusion
reactions you’ll need to know about in nursing school. Write LOVE in the comments if this video helped
you, hit that like button, and of course make sure to subscribe and hit the bell so you
never miss a video. And click on the next video in this series
so you can keep rocking critical care in nursing school. And go become the nurse that God created only
YOU to be. And I’ll catch you in the next video.

6 thoughts on “BLOOD TRANSFUSION REACTIONS | Hemolytic, Febrile, Allergic, Bacterial, TACO, TRALI, GVHD

  1. Don't forget to download your FREE med-surg study checklist right here:

  2. Love it, how did you know? We're about to do blood transfusions and reactions in lab! Thank you so much for this!!

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