CDC’s CERC: Messages and Audiences

By Adem Lewis / in , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , /

>>Good afternoon everyone. My name is Haley McCalla from CDC’s
Office of Public Health Prepairedness and Response Division of Emergency Operations. And, I like to welcome you to today’s
CERC webinar on Messages and Audiences. Today, we are joined by Kelly Waters, a
Senior Health Communications Specialist. This webinar is participatory. To ask a question, click the
Q and A button on your screen. We will get to the questions
at the end of the webinar. If you have any comments, you can press your
Chat button and enter it in the box there. You can receive continued education
credit for your participation. Please, follow the instructions that
were given to you in the invitation link. The access code for this course is CERC0711. In all caps, that’s CERC0711. We’ll go ahead and get into our presentation. We have Kelly Waters here who is
actually the lead of the CERC program. All right Kelly, I’ll go ahead and get
your PowerPoint up and then we can begin.>>Thanks Haley. Good afternoon everyone. Thank you for joining us. I’m going to go ahead and start this particular
presentation with a brief overview of some of what we discussed before
on the past two webinars. We talked a little bit about what CERC is. We did an introduction to CERC webinar a
couple of months ago and we talked a little bit about why it’s important when we did a
webinar on the psychology of a crisis. And, those get into a little bit of how to do
CERC which is today, messages and audiences. So, I want to do a very brief recap. For those of you who already participated
in those webinars, this will be a repeat, it’ll be a little bit of a
refresher for just a few minutes. For those of you who did not participate
in those webinars, this will be, help give you some context for
today’s webinar, and also, hopefully, encourage you to participate in those webinar. They will be uploaded on our website. And, you can, you can participate on
them after the fact, they’re online and you can still get continuing
education credits for them there. So, Haley, you can go to the next slide. So, purpose of CERC, Crisis and
Emergency Risk Communication principles, they really help you make
the best of a bad situation. We don’t have enough emergency responders in
any emergency or really outside of an emergency. So, you help all the people who need help. In an emergency, more people,
obviously, are going to need assistance. They’re going to need information
first and foremost. And, they’re going to need information about
what they can be doing to help themselves, to help their family members, to help
their communities, keep themselves safe, and how to get themselves in a good situation
to stay that way, to keep themselves protected. They’re going to need that information quickly
because time is going to be a big essence. We don’t know an emergency’s, if the
emergency’s over, if there will be aftershocks, if there will be after waves of an emergency. So, time is always going to be an issue. They’re going to need that information quickly. And often, those decisions, those
options, those choices they’re going to have aren’t going to be the ideal options. So, the choices that they’re going
to have are going to be imperfect. CERC helps guide those recommendations
that we give to the public. It helps guide us to make the
best recommendations we can so that people can make the
best choices that they can. Next slide. Ultimately, the right message, which is
what we’re going to talk about today, at the right time, timing is so crucial, from
the right person, and that’s another webinar when we talk about the spokesperson,
the right message, at the right time, from the right person can save lives. So, we’re going to talk, like
I said, just for a few minutes, a really brief recap about what CERC is. Public health has to be all the time. Public health is 24 hours a day 7 days a week. CDC’s staff’s 24 hour a day 7 days a
week to protect people from threats. And, they are global threats, they are
domestic threats, they are intentional, they are unintentional, they are
natural disasters, they are terrorism, they are all range of emergencies. And, CERC applies in all of these situations. CERC was written in 2002. And, although the manual has been
through several iterations and has been through several revisions, the
core of CERC has stayed the same. That said, it has become more of a framework. It’s become more of a usable tool for
communicators and public health responders to be able to pick up and use in an emergency. It’s become something that, hopefully,
in trainings like this and trainings, in person trainings that we do and
online trainings that we offer, that, you can study ahead of time and be able
to keep in mind when an emergency happens. We offer these resources so that you can
be better prepared to have messages ready, to have communication plans in place
when an emergency occurs and be ready to tailor those purchase at the time of
an emergency and as an emergency evolves. CERC boils down to these six principles. Be first doesn’t mean that you have to be the
very first Tweet or the very first eye reporter, being first in this land of social media and
24 hour news isn’t what be first in CERC means. Be first, in CERC, means
be first with information that is your agency’s responsibility to share. So, for an example, as CDC, when there
is a public health crisis such as H1N1 or a public health component to a crisis,
such as the recent hurricanes that occurred in the Southeast United States and effected
territories including U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico, it is our responsibility
to be first with public health messages. We wouldn’t be the first ones to say share
evacuation messages, that would be FEMA’s job. So, being first means to
be first with the messages that your organization has the expertise and the
professional subject matter experts to share. Be right means that you want
to be as accurate as possible. Now, given an emergency, you don’t always
have all the information that you need. What you want to do is share what information
you have, what you know, as soon as you have it. And, as you get updates, share that
information as soon as you get it. So, it doesn’t mean that you have
to know everything right away. It’s being quick to share the
information that you do know. It’s also being quick to correct information
when you find out that you’re wrong. So, it’s okay to be wrong. It’s important to share the new
information as soon as you find out that you have new information
that you share. That also gets to be incredible, it’s
being truthful, it’s being honest. You may have information based
on the information you have at the time, you may share certain facts. Those facts may change based on
information changing in a situation. But, you can increase your credibility,
you can be credible by correcting yourself, by sharing correction information
and sharing those updates quickly. Express empathy means expressing, in
words, what people are likely feeling, identifying what the situation is
like, reflecting in a community. So, this is a scary time, okay,
this is an uncertain situation. Using those words demonstrates that
you’re really paying attention, that you’re really engaged and
that you’re really committed to being a part of the solution. Promoting action is what CERC comes down to. Again, there are never going to be enough
emergency responders to one on one help all of the people in an emergency
who are going to need our help. So, what we want to do is communicate
effectively, communicate clearly and promote positive public health
behaviors that help people stay safe that help people stay healthy and well, okay. This is where promote action comes into play. We need people to take these action steps so
that we can promote positive public health. But, it also helps to give people meaningful
things to do, rather than have them sit around and linger on the situation
that they’re going through. It doesn’t change the stress of the situation,
right, that they’ve experienced an emergency, that they’ve gone through a crisis. It doesn’t make that stress go away. But, at least, it allows them to take some
ownership of their situation back, to give them, to give them some ownership of their recovery. And, show respect, okay, show respect is
something that shouldn’t have to be part of our CERC principles, it
shouldn’t have to be stated. But, it often goes by the
wayside, understandably, in a crisis or and communications. Because, from a responder perspective, having
been through several emergencies myself, you’re very, very focused on
the task at hand, you’re very, very focused on what needs to be done, right. And, from the community perspective, from an
individual perspective, from someone who’s been through an emergency, you’re very, very
focused on myself, right, you’re very, very focused on your family, your needs. And, it’s very hard to focus
on those around you and others. So, it’s crucial to remember, when you are
messaging, that you want to be respectful, you want to remember to be respectful, okay. So, be first, be right, be credible,
express empathy, promote action is what all of this comes down to, and show respect. Those are the six CERC principles. And now, we’re going to talk a little
bit about how we do this, okay, we’re going to give this
to messages and audiences. This is the CERC rhythm and there
are a few steps to each emergency. Preparation is where you can
start drafting your messages. So, in the preparation stage, this
is where you can start identifying who in your community you would be speaking to. Who are your audiences? Who are your primary languages? Who are your primary demographics? Who are you primary, what are
your primary education levels? What are your messages speaking to? How do they need to be tailored? This is where you can also start drafting
some messages maybe testing them out so that, when you get into an emergency,
all you’ll have to do, really, is start to tailor them to
that specific situation. Preparation phase is huge in CERC rhythm. This is where a lot of the work
can be done ahead of time, okay. Initial phase is when CERC actually happens. But, if you haven’t done any preparation, it’s going to be really difficult
to implement those principles. The maintenance phase, for those of you who have
already taken the introduction to CERC webinar, is where you can start really
tailoring your messages, it’s where you can start providing
more background information, as you get more context for an emergency. It’s where the emergency starts to
have a little bit of a rhythm to it, a little bit more of a pace to it. It’s not those first initial hours. And that’s where you can start providing a
little bit more context for the situation. And, the resolution phase
is sort of self-explanatory. It’s when you’re starting to come
to some sort of, well, resolution. And, you can really start educating
people on, based on what’s gone right and what’s gone, maybe not as well. You can start educating people how, maybe,
you can do things differently next time, how they can maybe tweak a crisis communication
plan for a similar emergency in the future. Throughout this, you want
to engage the community. Throughout this process, you want to keep
evaluating your messages and your activities and your communication actions so that you
can, so that you can adjust them as needed. If they’re not working, they need to be changed. And, throughout this, you want to be empowering
to community to help you make these decisions. Because, if they don’t work for community
members, then, they don’t work, okay. So, let’s get into a little bit more
examples of how messages and audiences work. Okay so, the public is going
to judge your message. They’re going to judge your
message by the content which is what we’re going to talk about today. They’re going to judge it by the messenger,
which is another webinar in and of itself, that’s going to be the spokesperson. And, they’re going to judge it by the method
of delivery, which again, is another method, I’m sorry, another webinar in and of
itself, that’s communications channels. So here, we’re going to talk about content. So, you can better understand
what your audience needs by understanding their relationship
to the incident. There are psychological differences, which we talked about in the last
webinar, the psychology of a crisis. Which, a brief overview basically
means how people, how people respond, how people react to an emergency. People react to emergencies in different ways. And, it’s important that, as
communicators, we understand, appreciate, and address how people are going to
react to an emergency because that’s, their response to an emergency effects how
they may or may not accept our messages and take the actions we recommend. And, demographic differences; we are
going to talk about community engagement in the very next webinar and a little
bit about demographic differences. This is age, sex, languages,
religion, cultural differences. We have to consider these things. So, the audience relationship to the emergency. If you guys are familiar with a bullseye, you
want to focus on those closest to the emergency. As communicators, we want to
focus our messages on the people that are directly effected by the emergency. That does not mean we don’t
want to also communicate with the people outside of
that immediate impact area. But, this is how I, we prioritize our audiences. Okay so, if you look at the people close to
the emergency, it’s going to be the survivor of the emergency, the first responders because,
by definition, first responders are first because they’re in the community
effected by the emergency, right. All emergencies begin and
end at the local level. You always have to remember that. The public health community
and the medical community, are going to be, are immediate audiences. And, if you look at the italicized
language just below that emergency sunburst, you’ll see action messages and safety messages. Those are the types of messages
that that audience needs, okay. And, outside of that, you’ve got the public
immediately outside, so a neighboring community for example, the media and then the families
of those survivors and responders, okay, people who are just really
interested in the messages. They don’t need, necessarily, action
steps, but they do need messages. They’re concern for safety, they need facts. They also may be wondering
what if the situation spreads. So, they do need information, okay,
but not immediate action steps. Now, outside of that is, maybe, the
international community, maybe businesses. What if they have, what if they have locations, what if they have store locations
in the are that’s been effected? You know, communities that are
wanting to express concern, elected officials from those effected
regions that want to express concern, they’re going to want to have information to
follow what’s going on, to express concern. They’re also going to want to have information
to, perhaps, to do some vicarious rehearsal, maybe even some negative vicarious rehearsal. Next slide. Okay so, when we usually do this exercise,
it’s an in person kind of exercise. But, I’m including it in this webinar situation
to demonstrate that, when you’re messaging, different audiences have so many different
concerns, they have so much on their mind, okay. Survivors and their families, they might be
concerned with personal safety, family safety, but they might also be concerned with loss
of revenue and speed of information, right. Governments might be concerned with the
speed of information, but, loss of revenue. Local governments might be concerned with
their personal safety and family safety. First responders are probably also, since
we talked about all emergencies happen at the local level, personal safety,
family safety, resources for response. Trade and industry is also going to
be concerned with loss of revenue. But, if it’s a local business, again, they’re
going to be concerned with their family safety, their personal safety, resources,
again, maybe for response if they’re willing to help out their neighbors. Media, same thing, okay. They’re going to be concerned about
speed of information flow, guidance. But, if they’re local media, they’re
going to be concerned about their safety and their family’s safety as well. So, all of these different audiences are going
to have all kinds of things on their mind. And, as communicators, for example, coming
from CDC, if we want to come in and we want to share public health messaging in an
emergency, we’re going to have to remember that survivors and their
families are also thinking about having worries about their own safety. They’re going to be worried
about their family’s safety. They’re going to be worried about
having just lost possessions, their livelihoods, maybe,
having lost their home. They’re going to be worried
about so many other things. They’re also getting information
from so many other sources. They’re getting information from their
neighbors, they’re getting information from their employers, they’re
getting information from other family members
and friends and neighbors. They’re getting information from everywhere. So, being inundated with information, having
so many other things on their mind, means that, when we want to communicate something to them,
we need to make sure that it’s important, that it’s necessary that we
communicate it, that it’s very, very, very short, clear, and understandable, okay. So, when we go into a response, when
we’re trying to think of what will, what do we want to say, what’s important that we
say, we need to ask ourselves what we would ask. What would we want to know in an emergency? You know, are we safe? What are we, what should we be looking out for? What will effect us? What do we do to get safe? How do we protect ourselves? Who caused it? Can it be fixed? This is not an all inclusive list, obviously. This is kind of the things
that we would want to know. And, that’s where you start. In that preparation phase, in that CERC rhythm
that we showed you, that’s where you start to kind of ask these questions, when
you’re developing communications, when you’re developing, sorry, when
you’re developing a communications plan for emergencies, that’s where you start to
say, okay, if an emergency happens in our area, what are some things that people
are going to need to know? So, if hurricanes happen in our area,
what are some, what are some things that people are going to ask themselves? If tornadoes happen in our area? So, if you’re really going to tailor
that crisis communications plan, if you’re going to make it an all hazards plan,
if you’re going to make it an all general plan, you can still ask these questions, what are some
things that people are going to want to know? And then, try to answer them. When an emergency happens, then, you can
tailor them to that specific situation. And then, when you get to
writing those messages, those messages should be extremely short, okay. They should be relevant. Like I said, they should be super
important to the situation, okay. When you get answer response, we
talked about that maintenance phase, you can provide more background
information, you can provide more context. But, right when an emergency happens, those
messages should be very, very relevant, okay. Hopefully, just action steps. And, they should be positive action steps. And, what I mean by that is,
do this not don’t do that. The reason we say that is because, often
times, the don’t can get confusing. People won’t remember whether they should
do something or should don’t something. So, it’s often clearer just to say do. Sometimes, when you tell people don’t, they
follow up with well then what should I do? Right, so just start with do. Also there’re a lot of people who have
that inner five year old that rebels against being told not to do something. So, just go ahead start with do this,
unless it’s apparent the only way and the clearest way to say
something is don’t, okay. So, for example, during VECA [assumed
spelling] we were advising pregnant women to avoid traveling to certain areas. The clearest way to say that was
don’t travel to these countries. Sometimes, that’s the clearest way. But, more often than not, it’s clearer just
to tell people what they should do, okay. So, for example, flu messaging
is the easy, is the best example of short, relevant, positive action steps. Cover your cough, wash your
hands, stay home if you’re sick. Very, very short, very, very
relevant, positive action steps. It’s very hard to replicate
that in a lot of situations because we have very, very complex emergencies. We have very, very complex
situations to communicate. So, this is not always easy
but it’s what we aim for. And then, ideally, we also want
our messages to be repeatable. We want them to be repeatable because free
advertising right, we want to share our messages and have people share them with their
friends so that everybody hears them. But, we also know that, as
messages are repeated, people are more likely to remember them, okay. They more they hear something, the more
they are likely to recall those messages. So, we’ve already talked about a couple of these
and how to make facts work in your messages. We’ve already said give action steps in
positives, make sure things are relevant. We haven’t talked about a few
and I’d like to focus on those. Use personal pronouns, we. We are here to resolve this
issue, instead of the CDC. It makes the response more
of a community response. And, you are working with the community. Like I said the next webinar’s going
to be about community engagement. But, you need the community to engage in
developing your messages and implementing them. So, using personal pronouns
should not be difficult. We need to work together when
developing communications in a crisis. Promise only what can be delivered
instead of saying it’s going to be okay. A lot of us have this tendency
to want to say those things. But, it’s not something we can deliver on. We don’t know that it’s going to be okay. And, define okay. Is okay how it was before
the crisis or new okay? It’s not a statement that you can deliver on. So, stick to the things that you can,
that you can faithfully follow through on. We promise to provide update
at noon on every day. We promise to provide messages via
your preferred Facebook account. Promise only what you can deliver. And, if you can do more, great. Use claim language. Claim language is an entire
course in and of itself. But, the essence of claim language is
use the language that people speak. Use the language that people
use on an every day basis. As a scientific organization, CDC knows a
lot of big complex words to discuss several of the complex infectious diseases. And, sometimes, we have to use those words. That’s okay if you have to use
those words if you define them. If you can, if you have to use those
words, just be sure that you define them. But, if you don’t have to use those words, if there’s a more common term,
use the more common term. It helps everyone understand
what you’re saying better. Avoid speculation. This is important. We don’t want to guess what’s going on. We need to share what we know to be true. Even if we think something is extremely likely,
we should wait until we’ve confirmed it. Because, if we’re wrong, we have, we
run the risk of losing credibility. And then, avoid humor. This used to say use humor with caution. We do not say that anymore. It’s not funny. Some people use humor as a coping mechanism. And, if people in the community
do that, let them. But, as an organization responding in an
emergency, we really need to be respectful. This gets back to that six
CERC principle, show respect. We really need to be respectful that not
everyone’s sense of humor’s the same, not everyone shares a gallows sense of humor. And, we need to show that respect and remember
that this is a crisis, it’s an emergency. So, five communication mistakes that
we definitely want to avoid, okay. Mixed messages from multiple experts. This is not an easy one to avoid. We can’t control what other
organizations say, right. That said, what we can do is build
relationships with our partner organizations and try to insure that we are on the same page. When we are in that preparation phase,
again getting back tot he CERC rhythm that I showed you, we can plan who we
will likely work with in an emergency, what our roles will be, and try to come to
a consensus on who will message on what. And, when we’re in that emergency situation,
try to make sure that we’re working together to develop these messages and try to make sure that any discrepancies are
resolved before we release messages. If you can’t come to a consensus, it’s really
important that you stick to your messages and not point out other people’s
messages or discrepancies. It’s really important that
you just stay in your lane. Information released late, let’s get
back to the principle of beepers. We just want be as timely as we can
with the information that we have. And, we want to avoid paternalistic attitudes. Paternalistic attitudes means I know
what is best for you to do with yourself. It’s not just condescending,
it’s a grade above that. It’s telling people that I know
how you should live your life. And, it’s the least respectful
thing that you can do to someone that’s been effected by an emergency. So, we definitely want to avoid that. Not countering rumors and myths in real time. We’re going to get to that a little bit later. But really, what we want to do,
when we see a rumor or a myth, is determine whether it’s harmful,
whether it’s encouraging harmful behavior, and we want to determine whether
or not it’s gaining traction. Whether or not it’s gaining a following. If those two things are true about that rumor or
myth, then it’s worth addressing in real time, okay, if it’s got the potential to cause harm and if people are potentially
going to follow it. And, public power struggles and confusion,
again, this is similar to mixed messages. If people look like they are not on the same
page, if leaders in an emergency response look like they are not working together,
people may not know who to follow. So, we want to look like
we’re all working together. We don’t just want to look like we’re
working together, we actually do want to be collaborating, working together. Ideally, successful communication comes from
the combination of credibility and trust. It should be intuitive that the
quicker we release the information, hopefully it’s correct information, and as
honest was we can be about that information, the combination of those two things
should lead to successful communication. Now, that said, this is a science in and of
itself because this is not always easy to do. Trust, is based on doing what
we say we’re going to do, okay. It’s the result of promises fulfilled,
which is why we talked about before, doing what we say we can and not over promising. Next slide. The consequences of over
promising and under delivering are that people will not follow our recommendations. If people don’t follow the public health
recommendations that we offer in an emergency, if they ignore those recommendations,
then, injuries will increase, the rates of infectious disease will increase. And, if the potential for death,
in that scenario is a possibility, then, the rates will go up as well. Misallocation of resources may be demanded. What that looks like is people will be
asking for medicines that they don’t need. People will be asking for
vaccinations, for example during H1N1, priority was given to higher risk populations. Meaning, pregnant women, elderly populations,
children, people with existing conditions such as asthma, I myself had asthma, so people
who were at higher risk of severe reactions to H1N1 were given priority for vaccine
because there just wasn’t enough vaccine to vaccinate everyone all at once. And, because there wasn’t enough
vaccine, that are really high demand, there was a demand for everyone to have it. There wasn’t enough understanding
around why that priority was necessary. So, there was a demand for
misallocation of resources. We just want it, everybody wants it. So, the communication plan had to be changed
to explain the priority distribution. Public health policies can be circumvented. Opportunists preyed on people. So, if you ever see the messages saying we have
the nature cure for Ebola, things like that. There is no nature cure for Ebola. And, fiscal and medical resources
end up being wasted. So, if people don’t trust the
organizations who have the right information, if people don’t trust us to manage a
response, they will go elsewhere looking for information, and we can’t do our job. That’s what it basically boils down to. So, how do we act trustworthy? We share information early. That is principle number one, be first. We acknowledge the concerns of others, that
is principle number four, express empathy. We already talked about under
promise and over deliver. So, like a spokesperson who
is never condescending, that is something that we’re going
to talk about in another webinar. But again, it gets back to the
right message at the right time from the right person, can save lives. And, we talked about engage third
party validators and advocates. This is getting, this is getting basically an
extra voice in there who can support you, so, somebody else that the community would trust to
say these guys are legitimate and they mean well and they have your best interest at
heart, if it’s the kind of community who maybe needs that extra boost of confidence. So, that is the conclusion of
the content of this webinar. These are some resource that we
actually have on our CERC website. We have a lot of additional
offerings for training. So, we have online trainings. And, like I said, we are posting the previous
CERC webinars, we’ve done the Introduction to CERC, we’ve done the Psychology of a
Crisis, and this will also be posted on there. And, you can continue to obtain
continuing education credits if you take them after the fact. We also offer sponsored trainings
in person trainings if that’s something your
organizations are interested in. And, we also have some resources,
some tools that you guys can use. If you have questions, that is our
[email protected] functional email box. Myself and my team members
get emails through that box. So, you can follow up with
any additional questions that. We have some time, we have about 15
minutes that we can answer questions now. So, if you have any, I’m happy to answer them.>>Thank you so much for that
wonderful presentation Kelly. And, we do have some questions. Can you explain vicarious
rehearsal and provide examples?>>Sure. Vicarious rehearsal is when, so you
see something on the news and you say, oh gosh, what if that were to happen to me. So, for example, I live in Georgia. We don’t often deal with huge earthquakes. So, if I see that and is say what if that
were to happen here, what would I do? And, I start kind of thinking in my mind and I
start kind of thinking would I prepare a kit, would I hide under a desk,
would I go into a doorway? And, I start kind of mentally preparing. Now, negative vicarious rehearsal is acting
on those thoughts in a detrimental way. So, a good example of this is, in 2011,
during the Fukushima, the nuclear reactors in Fukushima failed after an earthquake
and a tsunami effected the facilities. And, people in Fukushima were
asked to evacuate the area. However, there were people on the West Coast
in the United States in California and Hawaii that went to their doctor’s offices and their
emergency rooms looking for potassium iodide. They were looking for the medication that
is supposed to treat radiation poisoning. They were overwhelming the healthcare systems, they were taking doctor’s appointments
from people who needed them. And, they were taking medicine that they
didn’t need to take, which can be dangerous. Potassium iodide’s actually dangerous, if you
don’t have radiation poisoning, to ingest, because they weren’t aware that they, that
the radiation couldn’t travel that far. So, negative vicarious rehearsal
can actually be dangerous. If you take actions based on what
would I do and you don’t need to do it. So, I hope that’s clear. Vicarious rehearsal’s good. What would I do? Have a plan in place. Negative vicarious rehearsal is bad.>>And just to clarify, Kelly, would a form
of vicarious rehearsal be conducting drills?>>A form of vicarious rehearsal could be, yes.>>All right thank you. We also have another question. So, does CDC have guidance for preparing
persons and communities before an emergency? What works to incentivize people
to be resilient, to have knowledge or supplies before an incident occurs?>>So, do we have guidance to help
people prepare in emergencies? Is that the question?>>Right. So, do we have guidance
informing preparedness, messages, and what works to get people
to adopt the actions portrayed in those preparedness messages?>>Yes and, yes and no. We have CERC and we have some, like I said
on our tools and our CERC Web Resources and Tools page, we have some how to
get started writing your messages. And, in our messages note is this chapter. So, it might be good for you to send
an email and I can show you exactly where they are to that functional mailbox. But, the wallet cards that we have posted have
exactly how to start writing those messages. And, from there, it’s really something
you would have to tailor to the situation. So. Like, CDC an All Hazards plan but
we also have some tailored plans. All organizations have their own plans. So, we have, yes and no, we have ours. But, you would have to tailor yours. It’s a question that I can answer
and I can give you some samples. I don’t have them in front of me right now and unfortunately our internet’s
a little bit wacky today. So yes, I can show you the tools. Our wallet card’s the best example and it
have some examples how to start those drafts. Now, as far as how to get, the
best way to get people to engage, it’s developing these community
relationships and doing practice, doing and. Somebody just wrote about are drills a good way? It’s running these exercises. We do it all the time internally as an agency. But, we’ve been doing some
with other agencies as well. We’ve been doing some with
other public health departments. We’ve been doing some with other
emergency response agencies. It would be a really good
thing to do local community, with local community organizations
to get people engaged. And, what would we do, as a community,
if this emergency were to happen? Do we all, you know, pick an emergency. If it’s something that’s likely to
happen locally, I know, you know, I was able to do a training in Hawaii. And, they are extremely active in
community engagement for emergency response. So, it’s something that you would do
practice wise, getting messages out. Picking channels that people
are really likely to listen to. So, if it’s a local Facebook page, if it’s
the local social media kind of any kind, if it’s the local radio channel
that’s really popular, if it’s a local news channel
that’s really popular. If it’s something that everyone’s
locally really engaged in, that’s a great way to get the message out. It’s knowing, again, it’s knowing your audience and knowing what they’re likely
to see on a regular basis. Hopefully that’s helpful. I can be a little more specific if I
know a little more about your community. If that’s helpful, definitely
email that functional mailbox.>>And, just to add on to that, Catherine
mentioned that FEMA has a get ready program that has a lot of information on this topic.>>They do yes.>>All right. So, our next question is how would you suggest
helping a public health department overcome a belief that public information
dispersal or education is nor a priority?>>Oh that’s an ongoing question. It’s a challenge that I’ve come
up against several times, even, it’s not just a local public health
department, even at CDC that action, you know, logistics and operations and things like
that always seem like they’re the priority. In an emergency, interestingly, you spend
quite a bit of time trying to communicate to the public with what they
should do or what they need or. I think the best way to explain this is that
we’re never going to have enough responders, one on one, to help all the
people that need to be helped. We really need the community to take action. We really need to the community to work
with us to be able to resolve emergencies. We really need them to understand what
we’re doing and we really need them to share with us what they need from us so that we
can address those gaps that we’re not seeing. So, communication is crucial. And, the best way, I think, to go about that is to take our own advice and
just keep repeating that. Just keep repeating it and repeating it and
repeating it to keep sharing this information, to keep encouraging these trainings,
to keep sharing this type of content with decision makers, and to keep reminding them
that we are never going to have enough staff to make people, you know, do what
we’re recommending in an emergency. The best way to resolve a
crisis is to work together. And, the best way to do that is to communicate.>>Thank you Kelly. We have another question. And, this seems to be clarifying
about the role of a spokesperson. Bill is asking why not use the
Incident Command Structure available at every incident no matter how small? That would mean there is no, there is one
appointed spokesperson for every agency, responders and no individual
agency spokespersons.>>Most responses are set up to use instant
command structure, if they’re familiar with it. Organizations are not familiar with instant
command structure, if it’s a small response. That said, different agencies
have different expertise, so sometimes you do need different
spokes people to collaborate. Meaning, this wouldn’t be a small response, but,
when we were asked to come to Flint Michigan to assist the government there with the response
to the led poisoning in the water crisis, FEMA had a different expertise
than EPA than CDC or HHS. So, we all had a different, we all had a
different expertise to bring to the table so we all had a different
individual to contribute. And, that’s when you would have maybe a panel
of people able to speak to the situation. There would be one lead in that situation for say a press conference
who would be running the show. But, it would be appropriate for each
organization to have already identified who would be taking point for those
questions for their organizations. Hoping that answers syour question.>>Thank you. A few more questions. All right, Sarah says that I am a public
health, I’m a public health department worker in a very rural county, and
I am also a PIO that is part of our overall county’s crisis
communications team. When we respond to an emergency, multiple
agencies will be responding as part of a JIC. How do we still insure we are first?>>Okay so where would the emergency be?>>I guess.>>That’s the first question.>>Haley repeat the question and then
I’ll give you my [inaudible] instead of going back and forth.>>Okay. All right, so this person is a PIO in a
public health department in a very rural county. And, they are part of the
crisis communications team. So, when they respond to an emergency, there will be multiple agencies
responding as part of a JIG. So, how do they insure that they are first?>>Okay. The way that our JIC works, the way
that CDC’s Joint Information Center works, if CDC is the lead organization on a
response, then, so for H1N1, in 2009, CDC was the lead organization on that
response, it was our responsibility to be the lead with public health messaging. For, most other emergencies that
we get invited to assist with, we are not the lead organization. We are there to provide technical
assistance, so we provide that assistance, we help review messages, and we
differ to the lead organization. So, in your case, I would say it would
depend on who is the lead organization. And that would, I would guess,
would be determined by who’s directly effected
and what the emergency is. So, if it’s an environmental emergency, maybe
your local environmental health organization, if it’s public health your local
public health organization. So, it would depend on a lot of factors
who would be the lead organization and then that would be the organization
that would be first to message. Hoping that makes sense.>>Thanks Kelly. One last question. If you’re attempting to construct
messages for immigrants or refugees, how would you go about that? Is there any resources to
help a communicator do so?>>Yeah, CDC developed CERC actually for, it
was never developed for domestic responses. It was actually developed based
on the author Barbara Reynolds, based on her experiences with H5N1 in China. So, it was developed based on an
inspiration from an international incident. So, these tools and these resources
can be incorporated into any kind of communication with any kind of audience. Our Community Engagement Chapter, we’re
going to do that webinar next week. But, the chapter’s already available online. And, if you email that functional mailbox, I’m
happy to discuss it with you in more detail. It should give you some more context for
how to really engage with those communities. Again, I’m happy to talk to you about that. There are also some additional
resources that have been tailored. So, they’ve actually taken some CERC content
and tailored them for international audiences. So, our Center for Global Health and our
CERC team collaborated with Couresa and it’s if you look up Couresa that C O U R E S A and
look up communicating during global emergencies, it’s a course that’s available now. It’s a collaboration with Emory University
and the Center for Disease Control. And, it’s a course that’s available on
communicating with global health emergencies. So, that could be a helpful resource. is also offering some
course communication trainings for tailored for international audiences. And then, CDC’s Global Health
Group is also going to posting global risk communication
training online in the next month or so. It’s not done yet. But, it also took, it took principles
from CERC and tailored them to working with global international
audiences in low resource countries. So, I would say the best way to work with
these audiences is to access these resources and see how they’ve been tailored to
communicating with international audiences. Again though, I’m happy to discuss this in
more detail if you want to send an email to that functional mailbox if, you know, you’ve got some specific questions
I can answer with more context.>>Well thank you Kelly. We are right at time. And so, I just want to thank you again
for your presentation and thank everyone for participating today and all
of your wonderful questions. This is a reminder, you can receive
continued education units for participating. In order to receive those credits, you must
follow the instructions found in your invitation and use the course access code
that is in all caps CERC0711. If you have any additional CERC questions, you can email our functional box
which is [email protected] Thank you again, everyone have a good day. Bye.

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