Daylight Saving Time, Naked Mole Rats, Coronavirus, and more | Simply Science
08
March

By Adem Lewis / in , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , /


♪ [THEME MUSIC] ♪>>>HI, I’M ANDREW FALZON
AND WELCOME TO SIMPLY SCIENCE. I’M FILLING IN
FOR BARRY MITCHELL WHO’S OFF THIS MONTH. TODAY
WE’RE AT CUNYS ADVANCED SCIENCE RESEARCH CENTER.
FIRST UP, WINTER IS ALMOST OVER AND PRETTY SOON WE’LL
BE SETTING OUR CLOCKS AHEAD ONE HOUR. BUT DID
YOU KNOW THE DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME COULD BE
BAD FOR YOUR HEALTH? HERE’S SUSAN JHUN. >>>TO MOST OF US MOVING
OUR CLOCKS FORWARD OR BACKWARD TWICE A YEAR
SEEMS LIKE A HARMLESS MATTER OF ROUTINE.
HOWEVER, STUDIES SUGGEST THAT DAYLIGHT SAVINGS MAY
HAVE SOME SERIOUS IMPACTS ON OUR HEALTH. >>>THE INITIAL EFFECT OF
HAVING TO SHIFT YOUR CLOCK BY ONE HOUR BECAUSE OF
SLEEP DEPRIVATION AND THAT SLEEP DEPRIVATION IS
ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASES IN STROKE, HEART ATTACK,
AUTO FATALITIES, WORK ACCIDENTS, EVEN AN INCREASE
IN SUICIDE AMONG MEN.>>>BUT HOW CAN ONE HOUR
MAKE THAT MUCH OF A DIFFERENCE? I MET WITH
DOCTOR ORIE SCHAFER, A PROFESSOR IN THE
NEUROSCIENCE INITIATIVE AT THE CUNY ADVANCED SCIENCE
RESEARCH CENTER TO FIND OUT. PROFESSOR SHAFER’S
STUDIES THE BRAIN OF THE FRUIT FLY, WHICH IS
SIMILAR TO THE HUMAN BRAIN WHEN IT COMES TO CIRCADIAN
RHYTHM, WHICH SIMPLY PUT IS THE BRAIN’S 24 HOUR
CLOCK THAT CONTROLS THE BODY SLEEP CYCLE. >>>ANCESTRALLY, WHAT OUR
INTERNAL CLOCK DOES EVERY SINGLE DAY IS TO TRY TO
SET ITSELF TO SUN TIME. SPRINGING FORWARD TO
DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME DOES NOT CHANGE SUN TIME. OUR
CLOCKS CONTINUE TO SYNCHRONIZE TO THE DAILY
CYCLES IN THE SOLAR IRRADIANCE, SO THAT
DOESN’T CHANGE. YET WE’RE ASKING THIS BIOLOGICAL
SYSTEM TO IN ONE DAY SHIFT ITS INTERNAL RHYTHM BY
ONE HOUR. >>>AND THAT ONE HOUR FOR
MANY IS SUBTRACTED FROM AN ALREADY SLEEP-DEPRIVED
SYSTEM. >>>IF YOU IMAGINE HOW
LIFE HAS CHANGED FOR HUMAN BEINGS, EVEN SINCE 1950
WHEN ONLY HALF OF THE COUNTRY WAS ELECTRIFIED,
WE NOW SPEND MUCH MORE OF OUR TIME INSIDE, WHICH
MEANS WE GET DRASTICALLY LESS LIGHT DURING THE DAY
AND WE HAVE DEVICES THAT ARE CONSTANTLY LIGHTING UP
RIGHT? OUR EYES AND OUR BRAIN AT TIMES WHEN WE SHOULD BE
EXPERIENCING DARKNESS.>>>TAKE AWAY ANOTHER HOUR
OF SLEEP AND THE EFFECTS OF DAYLIGHT SAVINGS BECOME
PAINFULLY CLEAR. A 1999 JOHN HOPKINS AND STANFORD
UNIVERSITY STUDY FOUND OVER A 21 YEAR PERIOD AN
INCREASE IN CAR CRASH DEATHS ON THE DAY AFTER
MOVING CLOCKS FORWARD TO DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME. IN
2014 A STUDY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
FOUND THE LOSS OF AN HOUR OF SLEEP DURING DAYLIGHT
SAVINGS INCREASE THE RISK OF HAVING A HEART ATTACK
BY 24% THE DAY AFTER SPRINGING FORWARD. OTHER
STUDIES HAVE FOUND THAT THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF
DAYLIGHT SAVINGS CAN BE SUBTLE AS WELL, IMPACTING
A PERSON’S MOOD AND DIET. SO THE NATURAL QUESTION
IS, WHY DO WE PRACTICE DAYLIGHT SAVINGS? >>>IN THE WINTER MONTHS
IT GETS DARK QUITE EARLY IN THE EVENING, LATE
AFTERNOON. THE IDEA WAS BY EXTENDING THE DAY, THE
SHORT DAY INTO THE AFTERNOON AND EVENING
HOURS, WE WOULD CONSUME LESS ON CANDLES AND
OTHER ENERGY. >>>AN IDEA THAT WAS
PROVEN FALSE OVER TIME. THESE DAYS, PEOPLE JUSTIFY
DAYLIGHT SAVINGS AS A WAY TO ADDRESS SHORT DAYLIGHT
HOURS IN THE WINTER MONTHS.>>>DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME
IS DESIGNED TO GIVE US LIGHT IN THE EVENING, BUT
WE KNOW IN GREAT DETAIL, THAT LIGHT DELIVERED IN
THE MORNING IS THE BEST LIGHT FOR KEEPING A
SYNCHRONIZED, STRONGLY SYNCHRONIZED TO LOCAL
TIME. AND IN FACT, LIGHT AT NIGHT MAKES THINGS
WORSE. LIGHT AT NIGHT WILL ACTUALLY DELAY THE CLOCK.>>>IN AN EFFORT TO STOP THE CLOCK MANY SCIENTISTS
ARE OPPOSING AN UPCOMING BILL TRYING TO LOCK NEW
YORK STATE TIME TO DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME. >>>WE’RE ALL TRYING TO
REACH OUT TO OUR REPRESENTATIVES TO MAKE
SURE THAT THEY’RE INFORMED ABOUT WHAT WILL REALLY
CLEARLY BE THE NEGATIVE IMPLICATIONS OF LOCKING
THE CLOCK TO DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME. >>>ONLY TIME WILL TELL.
FOR SIMPLY SCIENCE, I’M SUSAN JHUN. >>>LIKE DOCTOR SHAFER’S
FRUIT FLIES, WE OFTEN LOOK TO OTHER MEMBERS OF THE
ANIMAL KINGDOM TO LEARN MORE ABOUT OURSELVES, EVEN
IF THEY ARE SOME OF THE UGLIEST ANIMALS YOU’VE
EVER SEEN. I RECENTLY HEADED OFF TO THE COLLEGE
OF STATEN ISLAND TO EXAMINE SOME OF THESE
WRINKLY CREATURES AND TO SEE WHAT SCIENTIFIC SECRETS
THEY MIGHT BE HIDING. [MOLE RAT SQUEAKING] THIS IS A NAKED
MOLE RAT. BUT DON’T LET THIS CRITTER FOOL YOU.
IT’S LYING RIGHT THROUGH IT’S BIG BUCK TEETH.
THAT’S BECAUSE IT’S NOT REALLY NAKED. IT’S NOT
REALLY A MOLE AND IT’S NOT REALLY A RAT. DOCTOR DAN
MCCLOSKEY SETS THE RECORD STRAIGHT. >>>THEIR MODERN DAY
RELATIVES ARE ANIMALS LIKE GUINEA PIGS AND ALSO
PORCUPINES AND SO, EVEN THOUGH THEY’RE CALLED MOLE
RATS, THEY’RE REALLY NOT THAT RELATED TO TYPICAL
RATS. THEY’RE ACTUALLY QUITE DIFFERENT. >>>SO ARE THEY REALLY
NAKED? >>>THEY DO HAVE HAIR.
THEY’RE NOT QUITE NAKED. IT TURNS OUT THAT THEY
HAVE THESE SMALL, SORT OF BRISKLY HAIRS ALL OVER
THEIR BODY. THESE HAIRS ARE ACTUALLY WHISKERS. SO
THEY’RE USING THEM TO SENSE THEIR ENVIRONMENT. >>>IN THE WILD NAKED MOLE
RATS LIVE IN UNDERGROUND BURROWS CONNECTED BY
TUNNELS. RESEARCHERS LIKE DOCTOR MCCLOSKEY BELIEVE
THOSE TINY HAIRS HELP THEM FIND DIRECTION AND AIRFLOW
WHILE UNDERGROUND. THESE CRITTERS LIVE IN A
MATRIARCHAL SOCIETY WHERE THE QUEEN REPRODUCES WITH
A SELECT FEW BREEDING MALES AND WITH A FACE THAT
ONLY A MOTHER COULD LOVE, IT’S A GOOD THING THAT THE
QUEEN MOM IS BLIND LIKE ALL OF HER LOYAL SUBJECTS
IN HER COLONY. AND ABOUT THOSE BIG FRONT FANGS…>>>SO THEY HAVE THESE
FOUR MAJOR INCISORS, SORT OF ON THE FRONT OF
THEIR SNOUT. THESE ARE TEETH, THEY USE THEM FOR DIGGING.
IT’S REMARKABLE THAT THEY CAN MOVE THEM
INDEPENDENTLY LIKE CHOPSTICKS AND THAT THEY
CAN KEEP THEIR LIPS CLOSED AND YET DIG THROUGH
TUNNELS FOR HOURS ON END. YOU KNOW, THEIR TEETH ARE
REALLY REMARKABLE IN THEIR ABILITY TO MOVE DIRT. BUT
ALSO THEY USE THEIR TEETH TO SENSE THINGS, SO BY
USING THEM, SORT OF LIKE FEELERS, IF THEY ENCOUNTER
SOMETHING MAYBE IN A DARK DIRT TUNNEL, THEY CAN
FIGURE OUT WHAT IT IS BY FEELING THE TEXTURE OF IT.>>>BUT WHAT THESE GROTESQUE
GROUND DWELLERS LACK IN OUTER BEAUTY THEY MAKE
UP FOR IN THEIR HIDDEN GENETIC GEMS THAT COULD
HELP SAVE HUMAN LIVES. >>>PEOPLE ARE REALLY
CONSIDERING THEM SUPERHEROES OF SCIENCE.
THAT THEY’RE TEACHING US A LOT ABOUT RESISTANCE TO
CERTAIN THINGS LIKE CANCER AND LONGEVITY AND
OLD AGE. AND SO IT’S INTERESTING THAT THEY’VE
SORT OF, THEY’VE CHANGED THE RULES IN MANY WAYS
ABOUT WHAT IT MEANS TO BE A RODENT AND A MAMMAL. AND
THIS IS, YOU KNOW, MAYBE IT’S THROUGH MUTATION LIKE
X-MEN OR SOMETHING. >>>ONE OF THOSE SUPER
POWERS IS THAT NAKED MOLE RATS CAN SURVIVE FOR
PERIODS OF TIME WITHOUT OXYGEN. ANOTHER SUPER
SKILL IS THE ABILITY TO FUNCTION IN HIGH CARBON
DIOXIDE ENVIRONMENTS. SCIENTISTS BELIEVE THEIR
UNDERGROUND CO2 RICH ENVIRONMENT HELPS SLOW THE
AGING PROCESS IN THE NAKED MOLE RAT BRAIN AND COULD
HELP US BETTER UNDERSTAND NEUROLOGICAL DISEASES IN
HUMANS. THERE ARE ALSO GENETIC MUTATIONS IN NAKED
MOLE RATS THAT COULD HELP WITH RESEARCH IN EPILEPSY,
AUTISM, AND SCHIZOPHRENIA. JENNA PANTOPHLET IS A
MASTER STUDENT AND GIVES TOURS OF THE LAB
EXPLAINING TO VISITORS THE IMPORTANCE OF THE LABS
RESEARCH AND GETTING THEM TO OVERCOME THE NAKED MOLE
RATS UGLY EXTERIOR. >>>SOME PEOPLE COME
IN AND THEY’RE LIKE, OH! I DIDN’T EXPECT THEM TO LOOK
LIKE THAT. AND SOME PEOPLE WERE LIKE, OH MY GOD. THIS
IS THE COOLEST THING I’VE EVER SEEN. >>>THAT MIGHT ALSO BE
BECAUSE NAKED MOLE RATS ARE THE WORLD’S ONLY COLD
BLOODED MAMMAL. WHAT ALSO MAKES THEM COOL IS THAT
THEY SHARE MORE GENE FAMILIES IN COMMON WITH
HUMANS THAN MICE OR RATS. SPENDING SO MUCH TIME WITH
THEM, JENNA ALSO SEES THEIR SOFTER SIDE AND MAY
JUST BE THE NAKED MOLE RATS GREATEST AMBASSADOR.
>>>PEOPLE PROBABLY WOULDN’T AGREE WITH ME,
BUT THEY’RE SWEET. THEY’RE INTERESTING. THEIR
VOCAL CALLS, THEY ARE CHITTERING, THEY ARE
CHATTERING, THE WAY THEY TAKE CARE OF EACH OTHER,
IT’S ALL VERY UNIQUE TO THE ANIMAL WORLD. SO
THAT’S, I LOVE THEM FOR THAT REASON. >>>SO WHETHER YOU THINK
THE NAKED MOLE RAT IS A BEAUTY OR A BEAST, IT
COULD UNLOCK THE KEY TO A LOT OF SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY.
I’M ANDREW FALZON, FOR SIMPLY
SCIENCE ON CUNY TV. >>>AN OUTBREAK OF THAT
FEARFUL NEW VIRUS COVID-19, ALSO KNOWN AS
CORONAVIRUS, STARTED IN CHINA, THEN QUICKLY SWEPT
ACROSS THE GLOBE. OUR ADAM MILLER SAT DOWN WITH THE
LOCAL EPIDEMIOLOGIST TO LEARN MORE ABOUT THIS
GROWING HEALTH CONCERN. >>>THE VIRUS THAT CAUSES
COVID-19 IS STILL POORLY UNDERSTOOD. >>>SOUTH KOREA IS ONE OF
MULTIPLE COUNTRIES WHERE INFECTIONS…>>>THE NOVEL CORONAVIRUS
OR COVID-19, A RESPIRATORY ILLNESS THAT ORIGINATED IN
CHINA IN DECEMBER OF 2019 HAS SINCE SPREAD AROUND
THE WORLD AND CONTINUES TO MAKE HEADLINES AS THE
EVOLUTION OF THIS VIRUS CAPTURES THE GLOBES
ATTENTION. >>>SEVENTY-FOUR PEOPLE
WORLDWIDE. >>>THE CORONAVIRUS
CIRCULATING IN 2019 AND NOW 2020 IS PART OF A
FAMILY OF VIRUSES THAT RANGE IN SEVERITY FROM THE
COMMON COLD TO MORE SEVERE ILLNESSES LIKE SARS
AND MERS. THIS OUTBREAK OF CORONAVIRUS APPEARS TO
HAVE EMERGED FROM BATS. IT’S NOT CLEAR WHETHER OR
NOT THE BAT DIRECTLY INFECTED A HUMAN OR IF
INFECTED ANOTHER ANIMAL, WHICH IN TURN INFECTED
HUMAN. >>>IN FACT, ALMOST HALF
OF THE WORST EPIDEMICS IN RECENT HISTORY WERE CAUSED
BY VIRUSES THAT ORIGINATED IN BATS. >>>AN EPIDEMIC IS
SITUATION WHERE THE INCIDENTS OF A PARTICULAR
ILLNESS OR INFECTION BECOMES GREATER THAN WHAT
ONE WOULD EXPECT. IN THE CASE OF A NOVEL VIRUS, ONE
CASE IS MORE THAN WHAT YOU WOULD EXPECT BECAUSE IT’S
NOT SOMETHING YOU’VE SEEN BEFORE. AND WHAT
DIFFERENTIATES AN EPIDEMIC FROM A PANDEMIC IS WHEN
YOU HAVE AN EPIDEMIC SITUATION THAT IS OCCURRING
ON ACROSS THE GLOBE. SO NOT ONLY ARE WE
HAVING CASES EXPORTED FROM CHINA TO DIFFERENT PARTS
OF THE WORLD, BUT WE BEGIN TO SEE TRANSMISSION OF
THAT VIRUS IN OTHER PARTS OF THE WORLD AS WELL. IT
APPEARS TO BE LARGELY BEING TRANSMITTED THROUGH
PERSON TO PERSON SPREAD. THAT IS PRIMARILY THROUGH
DROPLETS, SO PEOPLE ARE COUGHING AND THEIR HANDS
BECOME INFECTED OR SURFACES BECOME INFECTED
AND IT’S POSSIBLE FOR OTHER PEOPLE TO PICK THOSE
DROPLETS UP. SO THE SYMPTOMS ARE RESPIRATORY
SYMPTOMS, AND SO COUGH, FEVER, SHORTNESS OF
BREATH. AND IT IS HARD TO DISTINGUISH IT FROM OTHER
INFECTIONS THAT CAUSE RESPIRATORY ILLNESS. AND
FOR THAT REASONS THE BLOOD TEST FOR CORONAVIRUS IS
SUPER IMPORTANT. >>>ACCORDING TO DOCTOR
NASH, WASHING YOUR HANDS IS ONE OF THE BEST
PREVENTATIVE MEASURES YOU CAN TAKE. BUT HE ALSO
ADVISES THAT IF YOU THINK YOU HAVE SYMPTOMS TO SEEK
MEDICAL ATTENTION IMMEDIATELY.>>>GO TO A HEALTH CARE
PROVIDER, GET DIAGNOSED OR GET SCREENED. AND ONCE YOU
ARE DIAGNOSED ISOLATION OF PATIENTS IN PLACES WHERE
THEY WILL NOT BE LIKELY TO INFECT OTHERS IS CRITICAL.
LOCAL HEALTH AUTHORITIES AND HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS
ARE TRAINED TO DO THEIR BEST AND THEY HAVE CLEAR
PROCEDURES ON HOW TO CONTAIN. >>>BECAUSE THIS VIRUS IS
NEW AND NEVER BEFORE SEEN IN HUMANS, THERE IS SO
MUCH WE STILL DON’T KNOW. AND AS IT CONTINUES TO
SPREAD AROUND THE GLOBE, DISRUPTING STOCK MARKETS,
SUPPLY CHAINS, AND DAILY LIFE, THE BIG QUESTION IS
HOW BAD WILL THIS GET? AND WHEN WILL IT BE OVER? >>>IT’S ALWAYS A
QUESTION, YOU KNOW, WHAT’S GOING TO HAPPEN AND IS IT
SOMETHING THAT’S GONNA BURN OUT? IS IT SOMETHING
THAT’S GOING TO BECOME ENDEMIC? IS IT SOMETHING
THAT’S GONNA YOU KNOW, CONTINUE TO SPREAD TO A
PANDEMIC LEVEL? AND, I THINK WE JUST, IT’S A WAIT
AND SEE SCENARIO. IF YOU LOOK BACK AT WHAT HAPPENED
WITH THE SARS, THAT BURNED OUT AND I DON’T THINK
WE’VE SEEN ANY CASES OF SARS AROUND THE WORLD
SINCE 2004. IT’S REALLY HARD TO SAY. IF THERE IS A
VACCINE WE MAY OR MAY NOT NEED IT DEPENDING ON
WHAT HAPPENS WITH THIS PARTICULAR VIRUS. I THINK
IT’S IMPORTANT FOR US TO REALLY THINK CAREFULLY AND
PLAN FOR PANDEMICS IN THIS COUNTRY AND GLOBALLY. AND
SO THIS IS WHY WE TRAIN PEOPLE IN PUBLIC HEALTH.
EACH TIME WE HAVE AN OUTBREAK, LIKE CORONAVIRUS
OR SARS OR EBOLA OR MERS, WE LEARN A LOT ABOUT HOW
TO OPTIMIZE OUR RESPONSE FOR THE NEXT EVENT THAT
HAPPENS. >>>SO AS DOCTORS AND
SCIENTISTS CONTINUE TO STUDY THIS CORONAVIRUS,
THE RACE IS ON TO LEARN AS MUCH AS THEY CAN IN
ORDER TO KEEP US SAFE. I AM ADAM MILLER,
FOR SIMPLY SCIENCE. >>>PEANUT ALLERGIES ARE
MORE COMMON TODAY THAN EVER BEFORE, BUT NOW
THANKS TO A NEW TREATMENT, ALLERGIC REACTIONS COULD
BECOME LESS SEVERE. OUR MIKE GILLIAM
TELLS US MORE. >>>THE EFFECTS OF PEANUT
ALLERGY CAN BE DEADLY, AND THERE ARE OVER 1.6 MILLION
CHILDREN AND TEENS IN THE U.S. WHO ARE ALLERGIC TO
PEANUTS, BUT THERE’S HOPE. THE NEW DRUG IS PALFORZIA,
AND IT’S THE FIRST FDA APPROVED THERAPY FOR
FOOD ALLERGY. IT’S AIMED SQUARELY AT CHILDREN
BETWEEN THE AGES OF FOUR AND 17 WHO ARE ALLERGIC TO
PEANUTS. DOCTOR JULIE WANG IS AN ALLERGIST AND
CLINICAL RESEARCHER AT THE JAFFE FOOD ALLERGY INSTITUTE
AT MOUNT SINAI HOSPITAL.>>>THIS NEW TREATMENT
SERVES AS HOPEFULLY AN ADDED LEVEL OF PROTECTION
AGAINST ALLERGIC REACTIONS IN THAT BY THOSE WHO ARE
ON TREATMENT, IF THEY ARE ACCIDENTALLY EXPOSED TO
PEANUT, HOPEFULLY THEY WOULD EITHER HAVE NO
ALLERGIC REACTION OR AT LEAST MILDER SYMPTOMS THAN
THEY WOULD HAVE HAD THEY NOT STARTED TREATMENT. >>>PALFORZIA WORKS LIKE
OTHER ORAL IMMUNOTHERAPIES. >>>IT ESSENTIALLY TEACHES
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM TO BE LESS REACTIVE TO PEANUT
ALLERGENS. THE SAME IDEA IS ALREADY BEEN USED AND
HAS BEEN AROUND FOR OVER A HUNDRED YEARS IN THAT MANY
PEOPLE GET ALLERGY SHOTS.>>>BUT THERE IS A
DIFFERENCE WHEN IT COMES TO PALFORZIA. >>>THIS NEW TREATMENT IS
ORAL EXPOSURES OF SMALL AMOUNTS OF PEANUT THAT
INCREASES OVER TIME ON A DAILY BASIS TO TRY TO
TEACH THE IMMUNE SYSTEM TO BE LESS REACTIVE
TO PEANUTS. >>>IT’S NOT A SITUATION
WHERE THE PATIENT TAKES ONE PILL AND THEN AFTER A
WHILE BUMPS THE DOSAGE UP TO TWO AND THEN THREE
PILLS A DAY. THIS IS MORE MEASURED AND DELIVERED IN
A DIFFERENT WAY. >>>IT IS GOING TO COME IN
CAPSULAR FORM, BUT THE DIFFERENCE IN THIS
TREATMENT IS THAT THE PATIENTS WILL NOT BE
SWALLOWING THE CAPSULES. INSTEAD, EACH CAPSULE HAS
A SPECIFICALLY MEASURED AMOUNTS OF PEANUT PROTEIN
AND FAMILIES WILL OPEN UP THE CAPSULES AND USE THE
FLOUR THAT COMES OUT AND MIX IT WITH A SOFT FOOD SUCH
AS APPLESAUCE OR PUDDING, AND HAVE THE PEANUT
ALLERGIC PERSON EAT THAT.>>>WANG SAYS THE FIRST OF
ANY DOSE LEVEL WOULD BE GIVEN UNDER A PHYSICIAN
SUPERVISION, AND ONCE THAT IS DETERMINED TO BE SAFE
FOR THE PATIENT, THEY GO HOME AND TAKE THAT SAME
DOSE FOR ABOUT TWO WEEKS BEFORE RETURNING TO
RECEIVE A STRONGER DOSE OF THE MEDICATION. THIS WOULD
GO ON UNTIL THEY REACHED WHAT’S CALLED A
MAINTENANCE DOSE, WHICH IS THE EQUIVALENT OF ONE
PEANUT. SO HOW LONG HAVE YOU BEEN HERE AT MOUNT
SINAI? DOCTOR WANG WAS INVOLVED IN PART OF THE
CLINICAL STUDY AT MOUNT SINAI HOSPITAL. SHE SAYS
ALL THE PATIENTS WERE TESTED FOR ALLERGIES AND
UNDERWENT A FOOD CHALLENGE TO SEE HOW MUCH PEANUT IT
TOOK TO TRIGGER A REACTION BEFORE THE STUDY. >>>THAT STUDY WAS A
RANDOMIZED PLACEBO CONTROLLED STUDY, MEANING
THAT THEY WERE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO GET ACTIVE OR
PLACEBO FLOUR. AND THEN AT THE END TO TEST EFFECT,
THE SUBJECTS UNDERWENT ANOTHER FOOD CHALLENGE TO
SEE WHETHER THE AMOUNT OF PEANUT NEEDED TO TRIGGER
AN ALLERGIC REACTION HAD CHANGED. >>>SO IF I’M ON THIS
MEDICATION, DOES THAT MEAN I CAN GO OUT AND HAVE A
HANDFUL OF PEANUTS? >>>NO, IT DOES NOT. THAT’S
A VERY GOOD QUESTION. THIS IS HOPEFULLY ADDING
AN EXTRA LEVEL OF PROTECTION IN ADDITION
TO MAINTAINING PEANUT AVOIDANCE AND BEING PREPARED
TO TREAT ALLERGIC REACTIONS.>>>THE PEANUT ALLERGIC
INDIVIDUAL WILL STILL BE GOING OUT AND TELLING
SCHOOLS, RESTAURANTS, AND OTHER PEOPLE THAT THEY
HAVE THE PEANUT ALLERGY, BUT THIS WILL GIVE THEM AN
EXTRA LEVEL OF PROTECTION.>>>THIS IS NOT INTENDED
AS A CURE, ALLOWING SOMEONE TO EAT A PEANUT
BUTTER SANDWICH, LET’S SAY, NOR IS IT INTENDED TO
ALLOW SOMEONE TO HAVE PEANUT WHENEVER AND
HOWEVER THEY WANT. >>>THE WORK THAT WAS DONE
TO DEVELOP THIS MEDICATION COULD HELP OTHER ALLERGY
SUFFERS TOO. IN FACT, DOCTOR WANG SAYS SIMILAR
STUDIES ARE UNDERWAY RIGHT NOW THAT COULD HELP
THOSE WHO SUFFER FROM ALLERGIC REACTIONS TO
SOY AND SHELLFISH. I’M MIKE GILLIAM FOR
SIMPLY SCIENCE. >>>A PROFESSOR AT THE
BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN COMMUNITY COLLEGE IS DOING
RESEARCH TO EXPLORE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
PERCEPTION AND BRAIN ACTIVITY. HERE’S ARI
GOLDBERG WITH THAT STORY.>>>WHAT HAPPENS IN HUMAN
BRAIN WHEN WE CONSCIOUSLY EXPERIENCE SOMETHING? IT
FEELS LIKE IT DEFINES THE NATURE OF OUR EXISTENCE.
ONCE WE FALL ASLEEP, IN A DREAMLESS SLEEP, IT SEEMS
THAT THE WORLD GETS TURNED OFF FOR US. WHEN YOU
WAKE UP IN THE MORNING, IT’S LIKE SOMEBODY THROWS YOU
INTO THE WORLD AND SOMEHOW OUR BRAIN GENERATES THE
GROWTH FOR US. SO IT’S BASICALLY ASKING THE
QUESTION OF OUR EXISTENCE.>>>PROFESSOR MARJAN
PERSUH FROM THE BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN COMMUNITY
COLLEGE IS TRYING TO READ THE HUMAN BRAIN. NOT LIKE
IN READING YOUR MIND SORT OF WAY, BUT BY STUDYING
BRAIN ACTIVITY, DOCTOR PERSUH IS TRYING TO SEE IF
A PERSON CAN BE AWARE OF WHAT THEY’RE SEEING,
WHETHER OR NOT THEY KNOW THEY’RE SEEING IT. >>>THE ILLUSION THAT
THEY ARE USING IN THIS EXPERIMENT IS CALLED
MOTION INDUCED BLINDNESS AND IN THAT ILLUSION,
PARTICIPANTS SEE A BRIGHT YELLOW DOT THAT IS
CONSTANTLY PRESENT ON THE MONITOR. THE DOT IS
PHYSICALLY THERE THE ENTIRE TIME. HOWEVER, THE
ROTATING BLUE MASKS RENDERS THESE DOTS
IMPERCEPTIBLE, SO AT SOME POINT YOU ALMOST FEEL LIKE
THE DOT HAS DISAPPEARED OUT OF YOUR AWARENESS,
EVEN THOUGH THE DOT IS PHYSICALLY PRESENT ON THE
MONITOR. AND IT HAS BEEN SHOWN THAT THE PUPIL
RESPONSE NOT ONLY TO THE INTENSITY OF LIGHT, BUT
ALSO THE PERCEIVED BRIGHTNESS. THEREFORE, WE
EXPECT THE PUPIL TO CHANGE SIZE BASED ON WHAT YOU’RE
CONSCIOUSLY PERCEIVING. >>>TO PUT THIS IN
CONTEXT, HE EXPLAINS THAT IN THE HUMAN EYE, THE
PUPIL ADJUSTS TO THE AMOUNT OF LIGHT COMING IN,
GETTING SMALLER TO LET LESS LIGHT IN, LET’S SAY,
WHEN IT’S BRIGHT OUTSIDE OR GETTING LARGER TO LET
MORE LIGHT IN, LIKE WHEN YOU DIM THE LIGHTS. WELL,
PERCEIVED INTENSITY IS WHEN THE EYE THINKS
SOMETHING IS BRIGHTER THAN IT ACTUALLY IS. SO, IF YOU
DIM A LIGHT AND THERE DOESN’T SEEM TO BE MUCH OF
A CHANGE OR IT APPEARS BRIGHTER, THAT’S BECAUSE
YOUR PUPIL IS ENLARGED TO LET MORE LIGHT IN. SO IT
ONLY SEEMS BRIGHTER. >>>AND THEN WE CAN TAKE
THE PUPIL SIZE AS A MEASURE OF YOUR CONSCIOUS
EXPERIENCE INDEPENDENT OF YOUR VERBAL OR MANUAL
REPORT. >>>I TEST THE PROJECT
BEFORE IT GETS TO RUN ON ANYBODY ELSE. I
TROUBLESHOOT IT TO SEE IF IT’S WORKING SMOOTHLY. I
ALSO COLLECT THE DATA AND I ANALYZE IT AND INTERPRET
THE RESULTS THAT I GET FROM THE PARTICIPANTS. I
WANT TO PURSUE A CAREER IN HEALTH RESEARCH, SO THIS
IS VERY EXCITING TO ME, BECAUSE THE QUESTION OF
CONSCIOUSNESS IS SOMETHING THAT NOBODY CAN ANSWER. SO
THE FACT THAT I MIGHT BE ABLE TO HELP SHED SOME LIGHT
ON IT IS REALLY EXCITING.>>>IDEALLY, WE ARE HOPING
TO DISCOVER THE BRAIN AREAS OR MECHANISMS THAT
GENERATE CONSCIOUS EXPERIENCE. THAT’S ONE
OUTCOME. AND THE SECOND OUTCOME IS WE’RE HOPING TO
THEN HELP PATIENTS WITH DISORDERS OF CONSCIOUSNESS
TO BE ABLE TO COMMUNICATE WITH US. THAT WILL BE
PEOPLE WHO ARE PERHAPS IN A COMA OR VEGETATIVE
STATES. FOR THESE PEOPLE WE DON’T KNOW IF THEY HAVE
ANY CONSCIOUS EXPERIENCE BECAUSE THEY HAVE NO WAYS
OF COMMUNICATING WITH US. OUR RESEARCH CAN
POTENTIALLY GIVE THEM A WAY OF COMMUNICATION, AND
THAT WAY THEY CAN TELL US DIRECTLY, HEY. I’M AWARE
OF MY SURROUNDINGS. >>>I’M ARI GOLDBERG FOR
SIMPLY SCIENCE. >>>A DECADE AGO, OUR OWN
BARRY MITCHELL INTRODUCED US TO DOCTOR MARTIN
SCHREIBMAN OF BROOKLYN COLLEGE AND HIS WORK WITH
AQUACULTURE, WHICH IS GROWING LOCALLY SOURCED
FISH INDOORS. NOW, A DECADE LATER, ONE OF
DOCTOR SCHREIBMAN’S PROTEGES IS TAKING THOSE
IDEAS FROM THE LAB AND GOING COMMERCIAL IN
A VERY BIG WAY. [TRICKLING WATER]>>>A LOT OF THE
RECIRCULATING SYSTEMS IN THIS COUNTRY RAISE
FRESHWATER FISH. THERE ARE NO OTHER FACILITIES IN
THIS COUNTRY THAT RAISE SALTWATER FISH ON A
COMMERCIAL SCALE AND THERE ARE NO OTHER FACILITIES IN
THE WORLD LIKE THIS THAT RAISED BRANZINO. >>>ERIC PEDERSEN WAS A
WALL STREET INVESTMENT BANKER WHO CHUCKED IT ALL
TO GO FISHING. >>>I BEGAN MY CAREER ON
WALL STREET. IT REALLY DIDN’T RESONATE WITH ME
AFTER THE LONG HAUL AND I BEGAN THINKING ABOUT WHAT
WOULD COMBINE MY INTEREST IN FISH AND IN WATER
CHEMISTRY AND IN FOOD. AND IT DIDN’T TAKE LONG TO
HAPPEN UPON RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE, WHICH IS WHAT
WE DO HERE IN WATERBURY. >>>WHERE IDEAL FISH OPEN FOR
BUSINESS IN 2018. THE GOAL? RAISE 350,000 POUNDS
A YEAR OF EUROPEAN SEA BASS, ALSO CALLED BRANZINO. >>>IT’S A DELICIOUS FISH,
BARRY. IT IS REALLY ONE OF THE MOST FLAVORFUL POPULAR
FISH, YOU KNOW, IN THE MEDITERRANEAN. BUT AS A
RESULT, THESE STOCKS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN ARE
DEPLETED AND SO ALL THE FISH THAT’S COMING INTO
THIS COUNTRY FROM THE MED ARE FARMED. AND BY THE
TIME THEY HIT YOUR PLATE IN THIS COUNTRY, THEY’RE
ALMOST A WEEK OLD. >>>AND SOME FARMED FISH
IN OCEAN CAGES IS EXPOSED TO POLLUTION AND DISEASE.>>>THIS TYPE OF FACILITY CAN PRODUCE LOCAL,
SUSTAINABLE, TRACEABLE, ANTIBIOTIC-FREE SEAFOOD TO
A CONSUMER THAT’S RAVENOUS FOR THAT PRODUCT. OUR
BIGGEST CUSTOMERS ARE OBVIOUSLY IN NEW YORK AND
IN BOSTON. WE’RE IN ALL OF THE BOUTIQUE FOOD MARKETS.
EVEN IF YOU’RE A SMALL RESTAURANT JUST NORTH OF
BOSTON, YOU CAN ORDER OUR FISH AND IT WILL BE THERE
WITHIN 24 HOURS OF YOUR ORDER. SO BARRY, THE
REASON YOU’RE PUTTING ON THESE BOOTIES IS THAT WE
ARE A BIO SECURE FACILITY. WE DON’T WANT TO HAVE
PATHOGENS BROUGHT INTO THE FACILITY THAT COULD
POTENTIALLY, YOU KNOW, MAKE THE FISH SICK. >>>ERIC, DID I MENTIONED
I’M ON A SALT FREE DIET. >>>WELL THEN YOU SHOULD
SAY OUT OF THIS ROOM BARRY BECAUSE THIS IS WHERE WE
MAKE OUR OWN SEAWATER THAT WE GROW THE FISH IN. WE’RE
IN WATERBURY, CONNECTICUT, NOWHERE NEAR NATURAL
SEAWATER AND YET WE’RE GROWING IN OCEAN GOING
FISH HERE. SO EACH ONE OF THESE BAGS WILL MAKE UP
SOMEWHERE AROUND 8,000 GALLONS OF WATER. >>>ERIC SOUGHT THE ADVICE
OF EXPERTS IN STARTING THIS UNUSUAL VENTURE. >>>AND ONE OF WHICH WAS
DOCTOR MARTIN SCHREIBMAN->>>MACHO FISH. HERE GUYS.>>>WHO RAN THE AQUACULTURE RESEARCH LAB
AT BROOKLYN COLLEGE FOR MANY, MANY YEARS. HUGE
PIONEER IN THE INDUSTRY AND A HUGE INFLUENCE
AND MENTOR TO ME. >>>DO YOU WANT ME TO
PUT MY SPEEDO ON? >>>WHAT WE HAVE NOW
IS THE FRUITION MARTIN, OF ALL OF YOUR HARD WORK. >>>I AM SO HAPPY TO SEE
YOU. YOU’RE A LOT GRAYER THAN WHEN I FIRST SAW YOU.
[BOTH LAUGHING]>>>YOU AND I FIRST MET EXACTLY TEN YEARS AGO AT
BROOKLYN COLLEGE WHEN YOU HAD A PROTOTYPE, BUT
THAT WAS FRESHWATER FISH. >>>THOSE WERE FRESH
WATER. IT WAS TILAPIA. BUT THE IDEA OF GROWING A
SUSTAINABLE FISH PRODUCT IN AN AREA, IN AN URBAN
AREA, WHERE PEOPLE DEMAND THIS FRESH QUALITY FOOD,
IS ESSENTIAL. >>>THROUGHOUT THEIR
12 TO 14 MONTH LIFE, THE PAMPERED BRANZINO’S
GRADUATE THROUGH A SERIES OF CAREFULLY MONITORED
TANKS. >>>WE ACTUALLY LIKEN IT
TO A SPA. >>>THEY’VE GOT A GREAT
LIFE. >>>THEY DO HAVE A GREAT
LIFE, EXCEPT FOR ONE VERY BAD DAY. I THOUGHT YOU’D
LIKE TO SEE HOW WE ACTUALLY RECOVER THE FISH
POO, WHICH IS THEN USED TO CREATE COMPOSTED ORGANIC
FERTILIZER. SO FARMERS IN CONNECTICUT AND THE NEW
YORK AREA CAN USE THIS PRODUCT TO CREATE A
NON-PETROCHEMICAL BASED SOURCE OF NUTRIENTS FOR
THEIR PLANTS. >>>AND THE CYCLE CONTINUES. >>>ONE AFTER THE NEXT. ♪ [POMP AND CIRCUMSTANCE
SONG PLAYING] ♪>>>ERIC, THANKS SO MUCH
FOR THE TOUR. I HAVE FOR YOU THIS OFFICIAL
PROCLAMATION. RENAMING WATERBURY, CONNECTICUT,
SALTWATERBURY. CONGRATULATIONS. >>>THANK YOU VERY MUCH,
BARRY. >>>COULD YOU PLEASE
REPEAT THAT? I’M SORT OF HARD OF HERRING. >>>COD HELP US. ♪ [POMP AND CIRCUMSTANCE
SONG PLAYING] ♪>>>WELL, THAT’S IT FOR THIS
MONTH’S SHOW. THANK YOU TO THE CUNY ADVANCED
SCIENCE RESEARCH CENTER. AS ALWAYS, YOU CAN FIND US
ON THE WEB AT TV.CUNY.EDU AND ON FACEBOOK AND
YOUTUBE. I’M ANDREW FALZON. WE’LL SEE YOU NEXT
MONTH ON SIMPLY SCIENCE. ♪ [THEME MUSIC] ♪


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