Every drug sold contains in its package the so called warning label or package insert, that basically contains every information regarding the drug itself: function, administration method, recommended dose and the hated side efects, which list is often longer thant the rest of the arning label. But why a substabce that shoul be helpful, comes with so many negative sides? First of all, we need to define what a “side effect is”, more correctly called “drug adverse reaction”, meaning “any kind of undesired effect caused by the drug itself”, that said like so, still seems very vague. To better understand it, these adverse reaction have been classified in 6 different categories. Category A or Augmented: it is the kind of reaction most common and predictable. It appears whenever there is a an assunption of the drug higher than the recommended dose. This because many drugs act by inhibiting or stimulating some biological processes, usually acting on the cells’ receptors altering them. Since these processes usually happen with a defined intensity an excessive alteration of them may bring side effects that can be very Dangerous. For example, administration of too much insulin can cause heavy hypoglicemia stopping the nervous and cardiocirculatory systems from prducing enough energy, or excessive administration of anticoagulants can make a patient really vulnerable to hemorrhages. Solving them however is very simple: it is sufficeint to reduce the drug or administering an antidote and the effects rapidly vanish. B category or Bizzare on the other side, is much more insidious. This category contains very Dangerous side effects that also cannot be predicted in any way. They are usually those side effects with terrifying names such as “aplastica aneemy” or “multi-organ failure”. What causes them? Well, if we knew, we won’t call them “Bizarre”, no? This because every drug acts on more or less physiological processes that are present in every person. I mean, captain Obvious to the rescue, there are not many people capable of photosynthesis, or that can breath underwater, things that would require much different physiologies and would be a nightmare for doctors, i mean, the study course is already 6 years, imagine having to study 3 different physiologies.
Divagation asides, the genetic variability that makes e very individual unique, doesn’t affect only fingerprints or eye color but creates mild alteration to the physiology of every individual, not so much to change it completely, but enough to make for example, a receptor a bit more sensitive to a specific molecule, or creating a fragile enzyme that gets destroyed when it finds an anomalous ligand. Its exactly these specific non predictable alterations that cause these side effects, since a particular molecule that in most of the population causes a definied and positive effect, some individuals present specific genetic assets, they bond with some molecules in a bizarre way and cause extreme reaction. Changing category we come to the C or Chronic: They are effects cause by a prolonged pharmacological treatment. The principle is similar to the catogery A, with the difference that while in this one it is caused by an excessive administration compared to the recommmended one, in the C the posology is correct, but the particualr characteristics of the drug make it so that, for example, it can accumulate in the organism causing Greater and Greater effects, or causing a mild but prolonged damagate that with time becomes excessive and compromises some processes, for example Large intestine disfunction after continuous use of laxatives. The vantage of these effects is that they are predictable, Meaning preventive measures can be taken to mitigate these effects D category or Delayed is more problematic: it refers to effects that can appeare after long time, sometimes even months or years after the suspension of the drug Usually we find in this category tumoral diseases, usually caused by mutations induced by the drug that planted the seed for a neoplastic disease that will show up after succesive mutation Even though these are pretty much unpredictable, taking drugs with this kind of effects can push the subject to do regular control exams, lowering the risk E category or Ending functions in a way similar to abstinence, meaning that a suddent suspension of the drug, to which the body adapted to, can cause a failure in the relative biological process. It is very common with those drugs that mimic hormonal action, for example in a cortisone based therapy, often used in autoimmune diseases, the body adapts to this administration reducing its own production of cortisol, meaning that the suddent elimination of the drug causes an hormonal deficit with much dire consequences. Last category is F for Failure and is a bit controversial, since it is not referred to an effect od the drug itself, but it regards those effects caused by a failure of the therapy, for example with wrong or insufficient administration, meaning that basically it contains all those reaction caused by the disesase that the drug should have treated Holy Moly Globus, all of this sounds terrible, what can i do to be of help? Yes, my dear friend, yes, you can help your people, helping the pharmaceutical companies to unveil these diabolical side effects, how, you are asking?
On the site of your local drug contro agiency you can find a form to be filled out that helps, not only medical specialists, that should have it as critical objective, but every single private citizien to sigbal even justa suspect of adverse drug reaction, writing down all the informations about it and the reaction. These informations are then studied and analyzed and, if there is a certain level of incidence, the drug is subject to review from the pharmaceutical company and the control agency itself that possibly, will put that side effect on the warning level, or if this ends to bee excessively unpredictable and damaging, even remove the drug from the market. And we have finished for today, i hope it was instructive and entertaining, if yes please push the like button and subscribe to the channel, so i know i am doing a good job. Don’t forget to follow us on Facebook and Instagramn and, if you like our designs, you can finde these beautiful shirts in the link below, that is all for today, until the next time.