Immunoglobulins || Types || Importance in Lab Diagnosis

By Adem Lewis / in , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , /

Dear friends subscribe to our channel and press the bell icon to receive notifications of new videos on time Assalam u Alikum dear friends i am Kamran and you are watching MLT Hub with kamran. How are you friends i hope you all will be fine friends today our topic is Immunoglobulins and their importance in lab diagnosis ok friends so we will talk on this today lets start our topic friends basically what are immunoglobulins? Immunoglobulins are basically antibodies What is Antibody? Antibody is a blood protein in response to an Antigen and this is very important part of our immune system Which protects our body from Microorganisms entered from outside Protect us from Allergens.What is Allergen? A substance that cause an Allergic Reaction Any substance that can cause allergy fro Examples some people are allergic to Nuts ok some people are allergic to nutritional substances like cereals some people are allergic to dust particles some are allergic to fragrance so these substance cause allergy is some specific peoples entered in their body and cause damage and result in the form of Allergy beside this Antibodies produced in response to cancerous cells in our body ok second importance about immunoglobulins or Antibody is that they are always specific against specific antigen different types of antibodies produced in our body we will discuss in this lecture so specific antibody is produced against specific Antigen ok friends Immunoglobulins can be measured through blood that what are their levels in patient’s blood so the disease level can be identified A low level of a specific immunoglobulin increases the risk of repeated infections from antigen So such peoples are very Prone to infections those whom immunoglobulins levels are decreased in their body ok friends so what are types of Immunoglobulins? This is very important to know there are Five Major types of Immunoglobulins or Antibodies so these are Ist type Called IgA ok friends lets me tell you friends that IgA antibody is present 24/7 always present and activated on mucous membrane Basically present in large amounts in Secretion Secretion is the process by which certain liquid substances are produced in large amount IgA protect us from bacteria and virus When bacteria and virus attach on Mucous Membrane What is Mucous Membrane? Mucous Membrane an Epithelial Tissue which secrete Mucus ok and mostly mucous membrane is present in our body’s respiratory passages and Lymph fluid So this antibody is present on mucous membrane so it helps in prevention of bacteria and virus when they attached on mucous membrane also present in tears and saliva and protects our ears, eyes breathing passages involve is the process of respiratory process IgA also present in digestive tract and vagina these areas are mostly exposed to several Antigens and IgA protect us from all these Antigens Body produced 10% of this type of immunoglobulin Next Antibody is IgM and this is first Antibody in blood produced as first response to infection Mostly its presence is in blood and lymph fluid IgM is the first response to an Infection IgM is very important diagnostically ok Friends in Laboratory Rapid Strip (ICT) technique mostly detects IgM antibodies in Patient’s blood because it is mostly present in blood and produce as a primary response to infections Body produces 5% of this type of Immunoglobulins which form when an infection occurs for the first time The first antibodies produced in infection (Primary response) are immunoglobulins of the IgM class Becoming detectable about 1 week after infection and persisting about for 6 weeks in blood ok so it is detectable in one week after infection and it rise in blood and remains in blood for 6 weeks IgM antibody is a large molecule which can bind up to 10 antigens it is a good compliment fixing antibody compliments are proteins in our body which activate after infection and very helpful in killing antigens so when Antigen Antibody complex forms so this compliment system also activated so cause lysis of microbial cells it also acts as an opsonin Opsonin is an Antibody or other substance which bind to foreign microorganism or cells making them more susceptible to phagocytosis so Antibody will bind to bacteria, virus, Parasite and fungus and make them susceptible for phagocytosis ok so this process is called Opsonization so the destruction of Antigen occurs due to opsonization so IgM is a very good opsonin Next antibody is IgG which is produced about 2 weeks after infection and it can be present for year or two years and in some infections recovery IgG present for life time after Vaccination IgG is the antibody which is present as memory cell and protect against specific infection IgG antibody is the secondary response in Primary response IgM and in secondary response IgG It has two Antigen binding sites IgM bind 10 Antigen and IgG binds 2 Antigens It also fixes complement and acts as an opsonin like IgM It Passes Easily from the blood into tissues spaces and is the only class of Immunoglobulin that can cross Placenta from mother to fetus due to low molecular weight of IgG ok Friends This is present in all body fluids and defends the body against viruses and bacteria ok friends so this can cross placents Placenta is the connection between Mother and fetus through which fetus receive nutrients and oxygen so this IgG antibody is Transferable from mother to fetus through Placenta Body produces 80% of this type of Immunoglobulin Next is IgE Antibody which is concentrated in the submucosa beneath the mucous membrane and mostly binds to Mast cells and Basophils Mast cells and Basophils contains certain mediators to which when antigen binds these mediators when release cause allergic response due to which allergic response produced in the body so IgE will attach to Antigen and then will bind to Mast cells and basophis Mast and Basophils ruptures and release chemical mediators which causes Allergic condition in our body This is found on Mucous Membrane Lungs and skin and defends against allergens the substances which cause allergy so IgE protects us from allergens It is the main Antibody Involved in immediate type hypersensitivity reactions so IgE mainly respond in allergic reactions High levels of serum IgE are found in Patients with asthma and also in helminth infections such as schistosomiasis, ascariasis Hook worm disease, Toxocariasis and Filariasis in these conditions IgE level Rise in blood IgE also causes the release of specific enzymes from Eosinophils Next antibody is IgD and dear friends role of IgD is not fully known yet and still its function is unknown But in some books and researches thinking that IgD is found on the surface of B-Lymphocyte and B-Lymphocyte mostly produce Antibodies ok Friends IgD also present in serum IgD is also considered That It signals B-Cells and activate them to produce Antibodies So friends this lecture was about immunoglobulin and types of immunoglobulin If u like this Lecture So share with friends and like Thank you so much Friends Bye

3 thoughts on “Immunoglobulins || Types || Importance in Lab Diagnosis

  1. IgM Antibodies Indicate Recent and Active Infection while IgG indicate Past infection.So thats why most ICT (Rapid test devices) are designed in such a way to detect IgM and IgG antibodies for various diseases, and we can also measure IgM and IgG level on Elisa and other advance level Analyzers.

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