Kari Nadeau: Science takes on food allergies
12
October

By Adem Lewis / in , , , , , , /


(gentle music) – Today on The Future of Everything, the future of allergies. I’m gonna start with a little
bit of a personal story here today, a little unusual for me. I grew up in New York
and we spent lots of time out on Long Island in a little
town called East Quogue, where there was abundant seafood. Clams, mussels, lobsters, shrimp, crab, and I have extremely fond memories of my grandfather buying
lobsters for everyone. We would put newspaper on the table, get bowls of butter
melted, and dip lobster, and dip seafood in the butter and eat it. It was wonderful. And we had shrimp around
the house all the time and my mother loved it an cooked it and I just loved seafood. When I was 24 years old, or so, I was traveling, I was
on a trip to Boston, and I went out to dinner
to some seafood restaurant, and I returned to my hotel
and I had a runny nose, I had watery eyes. My
face was obviously red. And I was wheezing, I had asthma. I was having trouble breathing. I didn’t feel like I needed
to go to the hospital but this was a big enough deal that when I thought about it, I said, “You know what? The last couple of times “when I’ve been to seafood restaurants, “I’ve had this kind of reaction.” Now this is obvious I
need to be evaluated. So I went to the doctor and they pricked, they sent me for an allergy test and back then, and maybe now too, they had me lay down on my stomach and in 60 different spots on my back, they poked me with a little needle and put in a little challenge, like, leaves from different trees and extracts from different animals. And they did 60 of these
and at the end they said, “Well, we did 60 different food and plant “and other challenges
and you had a reaction “to 58 of them, including
big reactions to shrimp, “crab, and lobster. “And in fact, the only two
things you didn’t react to “were horses and rabbits.” And they said to me, “Have
you ever been anywhere near “a horse or a rabbit?” I said “No, I’m from New York, “I don’t know what rabbits look like, “I don’t know what horses look like.” And they said “Yeah, So, if
you ever do come in contact “with them, you probably
will be allergic eventually, “but you’ve never seen them
before, so you’re not.” So he said “No more
shrimp, crab, or lobster.” In fact, clams, mussels,
oysters, were okay, but those other three were not. And I was profoundly sad, and for the next thirty years, I stayed away from those foods, It became actually, a
part of my self-image, ’cause, I always had to fill this out. You know, when you go to a meal, they say, “Do you have
any food limitations,” and I always listed it. It really becomes part
of my self-identity. And then I met Dr. Kari Nadeau, who we’ll be speaking with in a moment, but first I want to finish my story. And I described this, I said
“Oh, you’re an allergy person, “let me tell you about my allergy “because its bummed” and I used to say, “What I might do is have my final meal. “You know, I’ll be old, I’ll
have some terrible disease. “I will just have a big plate
of lobster and that’ll be it.” That was kind of what I was thinking. And Kari said, “No,no,no,
I may be able to help. And then, we’ll make this story shorter, and we’ll maybe talk about it more later. But, over the next six
months she treated me in a certain way with
certain new medications that we can talk about. But the bottom line is that over that six month period, I was desensitized and I was
able to take my first shrimp and then my first crab,
and then my first lobster in more then 30 years. And actually, there was an
emotional aspect to this, because I was able to eat these foods that I had eaten with my
grandfather and with my family as a young boy, it was a big deal. And in fact, there’s been
two or three years since then and I’ve had paella, the famous Spanish dish
filled with seafood. I’ve had that on my birthday,
every time now, since then, and I’m pretty sure that
for the rest of my life I’m gonna be having paella on
my birthday as a celebration. And in fact, I believe,
I liked to believe, that I was instructed to make sure that I ate a certain amount
of crab, shrimp, and lobster on a regular basis, and I
have never been so happy to obey a doctors order,
then to tell my friends “I’m sorry, but I simply
must have lobster this week, “because it’s doctors orders.” Okay, so that’s my story. Now, Dr. Kari Nadeau is a
professor of pediatrics, pediatric food allergy,
immunology, and asthma at Stanford University. She is an expert on food
allergies, their prevention, obviously their treatment,
and the ways in which climate change may be
impacting both the food supply and the allergies that result from it. Let’s start out with basics Kari. What is a food allergy
and are they increasing in the population? – Yeah, thanks for asking that and thank you for inviting me here today, it’s really wonderful,
– It’s our pleasure. – And, it’s great to hear your story and make sure we can
deliver on hope and promise and make sure people get
to eat lots of lobster in the future without fear. – Because of that story I
would take a bullet for you. (laughs) – Well, it’s a team approach for sure and there’s lots of science
behind what you’re able to do and it’s really all you Russ, and I appreciate the fact that
you can talk about it today. So, what is a food allergy? We like to describe that as a disease, it’s a disabling disease
as you suffered from. It’s a disease in which
you have to eat a food, and when you do, you have
these reactions, like you did. You have itchy eyes,
itchy nose, congestion, you can wheeze with it,
you’d get a lot of mucous and this can all happen
within six minutes. – Yes.
– In fact 80 percent of the time, you mostly
have just hives on skin, but about 20 percent of the time, you can have abdominal pain, vomiting, as well as blood pressure
changes, and then wheezing, so we take it really seriously. – And that was part of
what they warned me about, and why I needed to stop, because I had had this
increasingly brisk response, and they were worried that the next one could be a big bad one.
– Exactly. So that at any point in time, someone that has a doctor’s
diagnosis of food allergy, has a 25 percent chance of
having a severe reaction. So and that, the typical
food allergy patient, about 60 percent of their reactions at some point in their
life will be severe. So, it accumulates as
you move forward in life, so I’m really glad that
you didn’t have to suffer. But importantly we took
care of you with therapy. – Yes. – That we need to make sure lasts. But contrast food allergy
to food sensitivity. – Okay, good, so that’s another
thing that’s in the air, a lot of discussion on social media. – Exactly, and so we like to
differentiate food sensitivity versus food allergy
because with food allergy we know that’s a molecule called IgE. I call that the match that
lights the fire behind allergies, and specifically food allergies, it can be quite dangerous. It’s not the only molecule
that we like to look at in food allergy, but that’s
the molecule that we know, if you have a food allergy,
that’s gonna be positive, and we need to watch that. Because any amount of dose can affect you. You might say, “Well, last night I ate
a whole pot of lobster.” But in fact another night, you could actually eat just a small amount and have the same similar reaction. – And this is called IgE. It’s
an immunoglobulin, I believe. – Exactly.
– And it’s Type E. – That’s right. It’s Type E, it’s one of the lowest frequent
immunoglobulins in our body. But we think it was meant to probably fight against parasites, not meant to fight against food, but it has this maldirected,
in some patients, this maldirected attack on foods and also pollens and other
allergies that people can have. One third of the whole
planet has allergies. And about 8-10% of people
have food allergies.~ So we need to think about how
much this IgE does its damage, and it is serious. The food sensitivities don’t have IgE. – Okay.
– And food sensitivities are, for example, when
you bite into an onion, and you start to cry. Or you bite into something and it starts to giving you bloating,
like milk with bloating. – Yes.
– Or, you eat something, and it gives you a headache.
– Yes. – Like some people have
that with migraines. Those are food sensitivities,
those are not allergies. No one can anaphalax and have a near fatal or fatal reaction to this. – And we’re not saying
that this is in their head, this is a real.
– This is real. – A physical reaction,
– Absolutely. – But it’s not immediated
by this IgE molecule, it has other mechanisms. – Exactly, and what we’re learning is there is a strong mind-body connection, and so what we’re understanding now is people that have
certain taste receptors, and certain abilities to know
that the food bothers them, they should avoid those foods. Your body’s telling you
not to eat those foods. – This is The Future of Everything. I’m Russ Altman, I’m
speaking with Dr. Kari Nadeau about allergies, both
allergy, food allergies, and food sensitivity. So you said food sensitivity
has these other mechanisms, perhaps related to taste. Are they all coming to you, or do you send certain groups away, and welcome other groups to your practice? How do you think about all
of these as a physician? – Yeah, I think as a physician,
as well as a scientist, when you think about trying
to discern those items that are associated with allergy, you always need to
understand what’s the other. And test what we call the
null hypothesis, right? And be able to understand
these discriminatory features between who really has an
allergy, and who doesn’t. And how do we help the
sensitivities as well? And are those perhaps
related to immunology, but in a different pathway? So what we’ve been doing
is taking all comers, and we really wanna also have people that don’t have any
allergies or sensitivities, because we also need
people that have no… – Yeah, what’s different?
There must be a difference. – Quote unquote, disease
or what we call controls. And then, I do see patients in
clinic with all of the above. I like to take care of families, from kids to pregnant moms, all the way to people
that are 100 years old. I think what’s important
to relay our knowledge and help families and all ages. Because all ages have food
sensitivities and food allergies. What we’re very careful
about is with Celiac disease, for example.
– Big issue. – That’s an inflammatory disorder, that’s very different from a food allergy, but that relates two different
arms of the immune system. And those people can
have chronic conditions, but that’s more related to
diarrhea and other issues. And those people I would
refer to GI specialists, because that’s their specialty. – So let’s just take a moment on that, because as I understand it,
gluten is one of the big… Problems, with Celiac disease, but gluten has had a bad decade. So can you talk to me
from your perspective about what is a reasonable
thing to say about gluten, as a cause of Celiac disease, and then gluten, I guess maybe
we would say, sensitivity. How do you think about that, and what’s the advice to people
who are worried about this? – Yeah, it’s really fascinating. I think that in all of our society, and all around the globe,
we’ve been looking at gluten. And gluten is a protein. It’s in wheat. It’s 1 of 33 different wheat
proteins in existence now. And when we evolve, we
evolve with the wheat plant. But now the wheat plant’s
kind of different. And so our gut, necessarily
for some people, when it eats a lot of gluten, it has an inflammatory reaction to it. Now for other people, they don’t. And so it’s important to know whether or not you really
have a gluten sensitivity or you don’t, and that’s where you need
to talk to your doctor. Because you shouldn’t just avoid gluten. There’s a lot of great
things about gluten products, like fibers, that really help you. – It makes my bagels
that I make every Sunday, extremely chewy.
– Exactly. – And so I always worry about, because I’m adding gluten back into the, you know, it’s wheat plus extra gluten. And then people say “Oh
Russ, it’s so chewy.” And I’m like, “Yeah, there’s
a secret ingredient.” – Yes. Right. And gluten
is this wonderful protein that we evolve with, and so for people that think
they have a gluten sensitivity, go check it out with your doctor first. Now for people with Celiac disease, it’s a maladaptive response to one of the specific peptides
in the gluten molecule, that actually then creates
the Celiac disease, but that’s mostly genetically predisposed. – And that’s not what we’re
calling an IgE mediated… – No.
– So let’s go back, so, I love this, I mean I could talk, we will talk about this, but… It took me probably five to ten meals to put together that this food eating was causing problems. And I really only knew seafood. I didn’t know what it was
gonna be when I went to… So tell me about the detective
work that you have to do in figuring out what is
causing these reactions. – That’s right. I think,
like what you went through, with all pricks in your back, that seems rather draconian. And we still use those
metal pricks, for example. – You do. I was wondering about that. – And you think, well why
are you doing something that’s been in existence for 100 years, well right now it’s the best that we have. So we take the skin, and
we can infer from the skin, what your body might do inside. But it really is only skin deep, because you have these little
cells called mast cells, that stay in the skin, they
don’t go into your blood. And they can last up to
nine years in your skin. And basically when you prick your skin with that specific protein or allergen, then your mast cell will pick it up and have a reaction to
it, via IgE. And so… – So it’s actually a very relevant test? – It’s very relevant. It’s relevant also for the
physician and very practical, because you can do it within
ten minutes in the office. So that’s nice. And if you
have the right person doing it, it’s very standardized, so we do that in our clinical
research at Stanford, as well as many other
people use it as a tool. When it’s negative, it’s 99.9% negative. – Wow. So if I didn’t any
swelling, then they say “Russ, maybe it’s time to
go see your therapist.” (laughs) So let me ask, those 60, are they the most common allergens
that you see empirically, like we have enough experience to know hay fever, shrimp, whatever? I felt lucky that the
things I was worried about were listed on the list of 60. So who comes up with the big,
let’s call it the Big 60? – Right, so what doctors usually do, is you come into their office
and they try to decide, okay, what are you allergic to? And they try to get that
from your clinical history, and then they design their
skin test accordingly. But importantly is when you don’t know, like you didn’t know, and like you’re saying,
you bite into a meal and you’re confused, because maybe you could’ve
eaten those foods previously, but now all of the sudden
you have a reaction. And for adults with food allergies, that’s 50% of adults
with food allergies now. We just published a big paper showing that 10% of adults in the U.S. now, and probably around the globe, has food allergy, and
they don’t know about it, until they’re an adult. Now, about 300,000 kids in
California, for example, learned that they have food
allergies for the first time, when they’re at school. – Yep.
– So eating foods, and understanding that we’re trying to get better at prediction. So right now, with Stanford
and many other institutions around the world, we’re
getting better at prediction. We shouldn’t have to
do skin tests forever, so we’re looking at blood markers, to be able to understand even before someone develops an allergy, what they might develop it to. – Yes. And it sounds like you also know there are genetic familial connections. This is The Future of Everything, I’m Russ Altman, I’m
speaking with Kari Nadeau about allergies, and you mentioned kids. Tell me about prevention. I know new moms are getting
a lot of information different from even what we
got when our kids were little. And presumably it’s based in science. What is the current advice? What is our ability to prevent allergies looking like these days? – I think over the past five
years, around the globe, there’ve been a lot of
randomized clinical trials now, and we actually have the knowledge
to be able to think about how to prevent. Which is fantastic. When I was doing this, and when I had allergies
when I was growing up, no one was talking about prevention. Everyone was talking about therapy. – Right.
– So we need to predict, and then we need to prevent. And so with prevention, what’s known now for
preventing food allergies, is I call it sort of the Ds: Dry skin, try avoid dry skin. Avoid detergents when you’re an infant, make sure that you use good creams, good emollients to protect
any type of dry skin. Because through dry skin, allergens in the air, and there are many, can actually touch the skin, and then the skin reacts
in a maladaptive way, and then creates allergies
inside your blood. – Okay.
– So we now think that the mantra is through the skin, allergies begin. Through the
diet, allergies can stay quiet. So the next D is
diversification of the diet. So if you eat a lot of diverse proteins early and often when you’re an infant, we think that that will
also tolerize the gut, and protect you against food allergies as you get older in life. – This is what I’ve seen. I am pleased to have an
11-month-old grandson, and my daughter is
spectacularly disciplined in the introduction of foods
in a serial, thoughtful way, that makes my wife and I blush, because you know, it was like, “well here you go, eat
this. See how it goes.” She feels like she’s really
gotten good information from her pediatrician about when and how, strawberries, peanut
butter, all of these things that we know can be
associated with allergies. – Right. And so it used
to be thought, in 2000, and guidelines throughout
the world were made where people were in a very
sort of precautionary reflex, and I think they meant well, because there was this epidemic
increasing of food allergy, they suggested oh delay the
introduction of peanuts, shrimp, eggs, but in
fact, in those countries that actually took up the guidelines, they had the highest
rates of food allergy. – So the avoidance…
– Avoidance actually created a higher degree of epidemic. Those countries say a doubling
of tree nut allergies, for example, every ten years. So with that now, they’ve
thought about the data, randomized clinical trials occurred over the past five years, so now we’re saying diversify
the diet early and often. We’re also saying have some good dirt. Eat some good probiotics. – Is that the third D? – The third D is eat
some good dirt. Not bad. – Oh, I love that. – So make sure that you have
good fiber in your diet. We have a great group of
people here at Stanford and around the world,
looking at microbiota, and how that’s gonna help
tolerize our gut better. To understand that our gut shouldn’t be having this
maladaptive response to foods. – The three Ds. This is
The Future of Everything, I’m Russ Altman, more with Dr. Kari Nadeau about allergies and sensitivities next on SiriusXM, Insight 121. Welcome back to The Future of Everything, I’m Russ Altman, I’m
speaking with Dr. Kari Nadeau about allergies, and one
of the interesting things that you’ve written about and looked into on the research side, is the
impacts of climate change. So of all things that I thought
we would be talking about with allergies, I wasn’t
expecting climate change. So can you link for me, how climate change impacts
your life as an allergist? – Absolutely. So with climate change, and that means that we’re seeing this 1.5 degree Centigrade
increase overall, and that’s due to the
carbon dioxide emissions, and with that, that carbon dioxide and all of the particulate matter that are associated with that because of diesel exhaust emissions, that really affects people’s asthma. So there’s plenty of studies to show that that small little matter, that you can kind of see in the air when you see that polluted day, and that’s about what we say 2.5 microns, that’s really small, but it gets into the bottom of our lungs, and it creates terrible havoc.
Our lungs don’t like that. – You know I grew up
in New York in the 60s, and I remember, in a skyscraper, and I remember looking at the skyline and seeing a little brown layer halfway up the Empire State Building, pretty much every morning,
which I was breathing. – Exactly. That brown layer
is getting into our lungs and in countries like India, in New Delhi, that’s really more of like a black layer. And so we need to be careful about what climate change is doing and how what I see in
my clinic, for example, is on bad air quality days, I’ll see more asthma in my clinic. In emergency rooms, the increase fold of asthma ER visits is about four fold. But then take that up ten
times when we have wildfires. So we’re also seeing in California, but all around the globe.
In Kenya they had wildfires, we’re seeing reforestation
issues in the Amazon. All the time that fires are used, that’s very similar to
this particulate matter, but it’s ten times higher in the sky, and so you see people, even
that don’t have asthma, come in with wheezing. And we don’t know to the degree by which those types of
climate change factors, those extreme weather conditions, even after five days, are increasing people’s
visits to the emergency room due to stroke, due to heart attacks, so we see all this increase- – So ripple effects,
really, of this air quality? – Big ripple effect. – So the connection to asthma
really makes perfect sense. Does any of the climate
change actually impact on the food, and food allergies? Or is that a different thing? – Right. So the one thing
about climate change, is of course what people are
seeing throughout the world, is that there’s more drought. Or there’s more flooding,
and that affects our crops. In addition, because of the fact that we’re having to reuse water supply, and we don’t necessarily rotate
our crops like we used to in the past, because of the fact that water is such a commodity now, we have less nutrients in our given foods. When we were growing up, there
was a certain amount of zinc, certain amount of calcium, in spinach. Now that’s being depleted, and
so the typical spinach plant has much less zinc and
calcium in it, for example. – Wow, so spinach ain’t
what it used to be. – No, exactly, Popeye would be sad. – And then that’s easy then to imagine that when food, when that
molecular makeup of the food switches, that it might
change allergy propensities in one direction or another. – That’s right. That’s
the next big question, is whether or not, because
we’re having to use waters that might have a slightly
higher amount of detergents, because they’re having to be used again, those detergents, even
in one parts per billion, for example, can change
how proteins are folded. And so that affects when we eat the food, how those proteins are being digested. So all these things are showing
up in our immune systems. In the way that we process foods, in the way that we see foods as people. So we need to really
follow this carefully, as well as look to what
degree climate change can be improved, because we
do see that, for example, when filters were used in school buses, or when we take away ozone issues, or for example, flourocarbons in the air, we see improvements in asthma. We see improvements in allergies. So we know that by improving it we can- – That’s great, so the game is not lost. We haven’t lost the game yet. – Absolutely.
– Now I do want to move on to cures, because this is one thing that your lab has become famous for. And of course I’m personally grateful. Tell me what is the current
landscape for curing allergies, if we are for some reason
unsuccessful in preventing them, which of course will happen. – Yeah. I think we always
have to have that moonshot as scientists to try to create a cure. Because in the goal of creating the cure, we can actually mitigate it along the way. And that maybe it’s not
everyone that we can cure cure, and when I say cure, I mean
that I’d like to make sure that when you get to be 100 and over, that you can still eat your
lobster without a problem. – My paella. Paella for
my hundredth birthday. – There you go.
– It’s a good goal. – There you go. That’s the goal. And so with that goal,
we want to make sure that every person that comes
into our clinical research unit as well as clinics, we
understand what their goals are, and then we can make sure
that we can face forward. So a lot of people say, “Well, I’d like to eat my food “and not have to worry
about accidental ingestion.” Or, they can be like you, and say “Well I’d actually like to eat that food, “not just worry about
accidental ingestion.” – In large amounts.
– In large amounts, we had- – Not just trace contamination, I’m talking like two lobsters. – Exactly. We had one college student who was very allergic to milk. I mean, put a little
milk droplet on his skin and he had a horrible reaction and he wanted to eat a whole pizza. And so that was his goal, so
we used the very same method that we used for you. – Good, let’s get into it. – Um, what we did was to say,
okay, we know that the body, and this has been going
on for hundreds of years. If we feed back the body every day, the very same thing
that they’re allergic to and this has been going on for pollens, for insect allergies, but what about food? What if we feed you
back very small amounts and increase those
amounts slowly over time? We train your immune system,
just kind of like how we train for races and build our immune system, it’s like building muscles. And so with that, we build
up your immune muscles, and over time you adjust and you become desensitized yourself. It’s the beauty of your own immune system where you readjust and
decrease your own allergies to that food. But along the way you can have reactions. And that’s the hard part. 30% of the people while they’re
doing this type of therapy can have bad abdominal
pain or bad wheezing, and we don’t, that’s scary- – Or the reaction that led them to come to the doctor in the first place. – Exactly. So it seems rather paradoxical that the treatment is
actually causing more frequent reactions that you’re
trying to avoid in the end. And over time when you get done with this, your reactions decrease and decrease. However, what we decided to do was people that have more
than just one food allergy, and many do. About 70% of people now have more than one food allergy. And so with that, we said
we wanna treat all ages, we wanna help be able to treat multi as well as mono allergies,
and we wanna do it safely. And so at the current
time, there was a drug that was being used in asthma that had been made by Genentech and a prior company called Tanox, and that was called anti-IgE. And so it basically quenched- – Which is a good sign, because you said IgE was the problem, so
anti-IgE is sounding good. – Exactly, so it quenched that
match that lights the fire. But it’s not perfect,
and so what happens is we use the anti-IgE as sort of a cover, with that increase in the
food at the same time, which is what we did for you. – And I remember this, yes.
You gave me these injections before you ever had me eat anything. I came back a couple
of times and you said, “Russ, we’re pretty much
wiping out your IgE.” – We’re building it up, and then we start feeding that food to you so that it’s done under
that cover, that blanket, of a protective device. – And that drastically reduces the chance that I’m gonna get the bad reaction, even on my first little tiny
bite of shrimp in 30 years. – That’s right. – Which is what happened. You guys were all around me, they had the crash cart.
It was very memorable. Like why is the crash cart here? Well, we think this is gonna work, but we’re not a hundred percent sure. And so then I took my
little first bite of shrimp in 30 years, everybody
watched me, nothing happened, but you did make me
stay there for six hours and make sure nothing happened. – Exactly. Because we’re super concerned, we always like to be careful, and for all of the
people that we’ve treated with this particular regimen. We call it Xolair, or
anti-IgE with the food, we’ve never had any
severe or bad reactions, but we always like to be careful. And with that, we can
also increase the dose of your food, so that you
can get done in six months, in nine months. Usually
it takes five years, if you don’t use Xolair. – I believe that when
you had me do the shrimp I had a little tiny bite,
but in that same session I think I ate two full shrimp. And so there was an acceleration. – Exactly. And we wanna do
that, because that helps people. – This is The Future of
Everything, I’m Russ Altman with Dr. Kari Nadeau, we’re speaking about allergies and the cures. So is that gonna be the way to cure? Or are other modalities also arising? – Yeah, you know, I think
one thing in science is that we always need
to think about improving. And that when you look at your data, you always need to look
at the data on the edges and say who’s doing really well and who might not be doing well at all? And why is that? Not everyone fits into the
gaussian distribution of data, so with that we’ve been
looking on the edges. We’ve been looking at how to improve and so this is very cool. So now a gene therapy has been made. So for people that don’t
even want to eat the food, because it’s quite anxiety provoking, we now have a plasma that we
insert under people’s skin, so the person can become
their own peanut plant, as it were. So they start making
their own peanut protein. – Oh my goodness.
– Very small amounts. In a very measured way. Daily. You can’t do this every
week, for example, you need- – So instead of eating the shrimp, there’s something in my body
that’s basically secreting shrimplike compounds so that I
can slowly become used to it. – And it’s really neat. That is to me this precision medicine, where you’re taking science, you’re being able to capture that, use it to effectively help someone, and enable them to be
desensitized to X, Y, or Z. So gene therapy, I think, is something very exciting and then I think there’s other cures that we’re looking into now
that use other biologics that might be safer, and that might treat a
lot of different ages, so I’m excited about the future. We’re running about 27
different clinical trials throughout the world in food allergy now. – So unbelievably good news
for those of us with allergies. Thank you for listening to
The Future of Everything, I’m Russ Altman. If you
missed any of this episode, listen anytime on demand
with the SiriusXM app.


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