Ticks, Asthma and Allergies: How the Changing Climate Affects our Health
13
March

By Adem Lewis / in , , , , , , , , /


Hey, well welcome everybody to our
prepared environmental change webinar. Today’s topic is tix,
asthma, and allergies. How can the change in
climate affect our health? So, my name is Andrea Webster. I am the implementation manager here at
the Environmental Resilience Institute. I am gonna get you started with
just a few webinar logistics and then I will pass it over to
Janet McKee our webinar moderator. So I wanna let you know that
everybody on the call is muted. We ask that you save your
questions until the end. But if you have an urgent or clarifying
question during the presentation, you may send a question to the chat
function, which you can access by hovering your mouse over the video
screen over the zoom window. Then you should see a chat option up here. So if you have any questions please
enter them through the chat and I will, we will, moderate them and
save those at the end. So, for now I’m very pleased to introduce
here ERI’s new director, Janet McCabe, so from here I’ll hand it over to
Janet to moderate today’s webinar. Great. Thank you, Andrea, and
thanks to everybody for joining us. I’m particularly excited
about this webinar. I get very excited about
all our webinars but I’m particularly excited
about this one because for me climate change and environmental
changes are all about public health. And that should be top of our list
in terms of making sure that people understand what the public health
implications of these changes that are happening are. And so I’m very, very pleased with
the speakers that we have today. We’ll introduce in a minute and
I wanna thank you all for joining us. I just every time I get
on one of these webinars, I wish there were twice
as many people dialed in. So, please spread the word if
you think that this is useful. So, just quickly for those of you that
may not be familiar with the institute, the Environmental Resilience Institute,
which is a product of IU’s grand challenge, prepared for
environmental change. Thank you Andrea, is focused on
producing useful research and programs for Hoosier, for communities, for businesses, for
people across the state related to environmental change and
climate change. In particular the programs that Andrea and
I work on, our focus towards local governments and local governments to
me means, also the businesses and people and organizations that exists
within those local governments. And this webinar series is one
resource that we’ve provided but there are others as well that I won’t go
into on detail because we don’t wanna take the time for that. But you can feel free to
ask us about any of those. We have some upcoming webinars. The next one also is about public health,
focus more on solutions although you’ll be hearing
something about solutions today. If you had enough, we have a slide
that shows the next webinars. There we go. In November our webinar is gonna be
about the Hoosier resilience index, which is a project that we are working on
and will be launching on November second. This is an interesting tool that we’re
developing to help communities understand their particular vulnerabilities
with respect to climate change, and that will be based on information
that’s been developed through the Indiana climate change impacts assessment and
other public databases. We will provide that kind of
information for every city, town, and county in the state. The second part of the index will
be sort of a worksheet based do-it-yourself assessment for a community on how ready they are for the
particular vulnerabilities that they have. We’ve been testing it with, four different
local governments this summer and we think it’s gonna be super useful for
people. So we will have a webinar completely
devoted to that in November. And then another topic near and
dear to my heart in December is gonna be on zoning and comprehensive
plan strategies and how to build climate sensitive program policies into the way
local governments make decisions. So, super important. So, let’s go to the next slide. I wanna thank our long-time
supporters of this webinar series, Accelerate Indiana Municipalities, and
the Association of Indiana Counties. I think all you know what they do,
the important work that they do. This time,
I also want to thank new sponsors. Health by Design and the Indiana Public
Health Association who you won’t be surprised to hear was particularly
interested in the topics today. So thanks to them. And that will lead me to
thank Kim Erwin who was the the Executive Director
of Health by design, also the Director of
the Public Health Association. Health by Design is an organization
that I’ve worked with for many years. And it works at the intersection
of the built environment and public health, helping to educate
people on how to build our community so that they will be healthier. And she administers
the Indiana Public Health Association, in which role she guides the strategic
direction, [INAUDIBLE] development, and programmatic operational and financial
management of both organizations, as she has a masters of public health
from the Indiana University School of Medicine Department of Public Health, yay. And an undergrad degree from Northwestern. So I’m gonna turn it over to Kim,
for a few moments, and then she’ll turn it back to
me to introduce our speakers. Hi everyone, this is Kim Irwin speaking. It’s great to be with you today. Thank you for participating. Yes, just a chance to say hello and
reinforce how important this connection is between
climate change and public health. And that we as public
health professionals, we as public health organization
wants to be doing everything we can. Want to ensure that people
are aware of that connection, to understand the long
term impacts of that and to understand how public health
professionals but our partners beyond that can be involved in mitigating
risk and preparing for resiliency. And Janet mentioned Health by Design
works at the intersection of the built environment and public health. So our work is all about transportation,
systems, land uses, planning and zoning, love the comprehensive
planning topic coming up in December, our parks and rec and green space,
and how all of those things in our environment either support healthy,
active living or detract from it? And so many of you have been involved
in that work, always more to do. In January of this year, we began managing
the Indiana Public Health Association and that has offered an opportunity to even
further expand our interest within public health to get more involved with
what’s happening across the state, particularly with local health
departments and others. And so we’re glad to be in that role and
looking forward to continuing to work with the Environmental Resilience Institute,
but all of you as well. Thanks, Janet.>>Great, thanks Kim. We’re just delighted to have
your partnership on this and you have access to. A whole world of public health, folks in organizations that I
hope we can get engaged here. So somehow, I’m not seeing slides,
I’m gonna count on Andrea for the fact that, there we go,
that the slides are up there. We have over 35 people or organizations registered for
today’s webinar. That’s fantastic, but not nearly enough,
so please spread the word. And after you hear
the presentations today, I know you will be inspired to do so. So I’m gonna introduce both
of our speakers now, so that we can just move from to
the other seamlessly and save time. First, we will hear from Melissa Widhalm. Melissa has actually been a presenter
on our webinar series before. She is operations manager with
the Purdue Climate Change Research Center, which is located in West Lafayette. She’s the program coordinator for the
Indiana Climate Change Impacts Assessment, which is just an amazing resource
that we have here in Indiana. It’s a statewide collaborative effort
to develop a series of reports, designed to have Hoosiers better
understand climate change-related risks, so that they can better prepare for
the future. And I can assure you from
my personal experience, that not all states have this kind
of resource available to them. Melissa is responsible for overseeing
report development and dissemination, and I know, I’ve seen her travel schedule,
she is all over the state talking about these reports and
climate change throughout Indiana. She has a Bachelor of Science
degree in Mediology from Northern Illinois University, and a master
of science degree in natural resource science from the University
of Nebraska-Lincoln. She will be talking about the chapter
produced under this effort that focuses on public health impacts
of climate change in Indiana. She will be followed by Dr. Dana Habeeb, who we’re thrilled
to welcome to the webinar series. Dana is an assistant professor in
the Department of Informatics at IU. She’s trained as an architect and
urban designer, and brings a design perspective to her research in
environmental planning and health. She has a focus on designing
local interventions, and investigates ways to engage and empower
individuals to respond to current and future environmental problems, by
synthesizing research in climate change, public health, and environment sensing. For research explorers,
how climate response and design can help mitigate climate change,
and address environmental challenges to improve the health of individuals and
communities. And she will be speaking
a lot today about heat, and the risks of increasing
heat in our communities. So I am gonna turn it over to Melissa, and
I’ll just remind people that if you have questions along the way, please feel
free to put them into the chat box. And if there are burning questions that
should be asked right away, Andrea or I will be rude and interrupt, and
otherwise, we’ll save it to the end. So Melissa, I’ll hand it over to you.>>All right, thank you, can you hear me?>>Yes we can.>>All right, I’m gonna go ahead and
share my PowerPoint here. All right, are you seeing my title slide? I think we’re good, yep? All right, I’m gonna take that as a yes. [LAUGH]
>>Yes.>>All right, thank you so much. So again, my name is Melissa Wilhelm. I’m gonna just do a quick review of
the Hoosier health in a changing climate, which is the chapter from the Indiana
Climate Change Impacts Assessment. I won’t be able to go too much in depth. I usually will go through a lot
of the climate changes and all of that first, but
in the interests of time today, we’re gonna just jump right
into the health report. I mean, hit on some of those key messages. And this is meant to be an overview,
we wanna save time for our second speaker as well. So I’ll move quickly, go to the website,
check out the report. We have a ton more information there than
I’m able to share with you here today. And I hope this really helps you get
that overview, to set the stage for what kind of risks we’re talking about
here in Indiana related to our health. So all of this again, it comes from the
Indiana Climate Change Impacts Assessment. While it’s led at Purdue University, it really couldn’t have happened
without the dozens of universities, private groups, nonprofits,
state agencies, and other experts in our state that have contributed in a variety
of ways to overall assessment. We have something like 100 content experts
working on a series of different reports. I put the topics here up on the screen,
and that is no small effort,
as you can imagine. So we have reports right now available
on climate health ecosystems, a whole bunch of them. Today we’re focusing on health, the two
that I have up on the screen that you’re not gonna find at our website yet
are water resources and infrastructure. Those reports are in progress,
we’re hoping to have one of them out later this year, and
the other one out early next year. And we’re constantly putting up new
resources to help people interpret, understand and share all of the great
information we’ve been able to compile from our experts right here in our state. So even if you’ve already read the
reports, keep coming back to the website, find our newsletters. Find our other resources,
get in touch with us, so we can continue this great work. And again, while I showed you
earlier some of the groups that are working on the impacts
assessment more broadly, what I have showing here is
really that health working group. These are all the folks that really
contributed to the work here on this chapter. It was led by Gabe Filippeli
at IUPUI with contributions from a whole number of
folks there on the screen. So when we’re talking about
climate change and human health, it’s really all about the pathways. It’s really all about these
rippling effects, okay? So we get these changes in temperature,
we get changes in rainfall. They interact in a variety of ways to
affect the length of our growing season, the intensity of our rainfall,
how hot or how cold we get. And from there,
we see these rippling effects. So we can think about when
we have a heat event, we’re gonna see things like heat stress,
cardiovascular failure. When you have changes in heat, you’re
gonna have changes in air pollution, that’s gonna trigger some problems for
asthma. You can see how we get
these rippling effects. And so what I’m showing here is
just kind of that summary of how these different health
outcomes tie back to changes in factors that are directly and
indirectly affected by climate. All right, so
when we have a change in climate, these are all parts of the wheel
that are changing, okay? So it can become pretty complex. But what I think what’s really important
to also remember from this is while we have direct and indirect effects
that affect our health outcomes, what we’re not seeing in this slide
is that management component. And that’s something our second
speaker’s going to talk about, is that a lot of these things can
be helped, or further exacerbated, depending on how we prepare, or don’t
prepare for the impacts that are coming. And so really just having this baseline
awareness here in our state of how these pathways are gonna
manifest into impacts that we see in our real communities
Is really important. So one of the primary findings from
our impact assessment is that. When we start having these
increasing temperatures, that we’re expecting to see about five
to six degrees of warming in our average temperature by mid-century, and
that’s warming across all seasons. When we start having that,
that’s going to change our extremes. So we’re talking about more extreme heat,
less extreme cold. Well, when we’re talking about that,
that has an impact on heat-related illnesses and deaths,
and there is a seasonal component to it. So overall, if we look at it
over the course of a year, and I’ve highlighted it here in blue. We’re gonna expect to see about
a doubling of temperature-related deaths here in our state by mid-century. But that’s going to come from a mixture
of fewer deaths in the winter and more deaths in the summer. So many more that it then
outweighs that benefit that we’re seeing in the winter, okay. And I have another slide on this
that I’ll show you in just a moment. So that’s really the takeaway when we’re
talking about heat-related illnesses and impacts. We are going to see quite a few more of
them as temperatures continue to change. And it’s not going to affect everybody
the same, children, the elderly, low income households. Folks that have preexisting
health conditions, they’re gonna be at the greatest risk and the greatest susceptibility
of feeling that heat stress. So if we look at this graphically, let me just take a moment to show
you what we’re looking at here. We have a few different
cities that we’ve pulled out. And when we’re looking at this graphic,
we’re looking at the change in the premature deaths per year, for
a few different time periods, okay? So early century would be 2030,
mid-century, late century. If you’re above that 0,
that means you’re adding deaths. If you’re below that 0, that means
you’re having fewer deaths, okay, you’re saving lives. And so the blue arrow that’s
representing our cold season, the red arrow that
representing our warm season. And so you can see over time,
we’re having fewer and fewer cold-season deaths
as temperature is warm. More and more warm-season
deaths as temperature rise. And the net effect of that, overall,
is an increase in heat-related deaths and injuries. If we look at how this plays
out with extreme heat, I don’t have showing the cold winter
temperatures just for the sake of time. But what we’re looking at here is, again, if we can look at different
parts of the state. This black bar is showing, historically, how many extreme heat days
do we have in a given year. This is looking at 95 degrees, while in the past we would have about
4 of those days in Marion County. This is an average,
some years are gonna have a lot more, some years are gonna have a lot less. When we average it out, that baseline that we’re looking at is
about 4 days with that extreme heat. So when we look at our baseline and
how that’s changing, if we go out here to middle of the
century, in the central part of our state. We’re looking at 27 to 39 days each
year with temperatures above 95. That is a significant change and
you can see how that would cause a pretty large increase in heat stress,
heat-related injuries. But, again,
it’s something that can be managed for. This number can be a lot lower when we
start talking about how it impacts health, if there are interventions in
place to help our communities cope with that change. So heat is only one of the ways
that we are talking about in impact of climate change on human health,
air quality is also a big one, okay? So I’m gonna show you two slide shares,
one air quality related to Ozone, and one air quality related to allergens and
pollens. And so here are the key finding
related to the report is that, when we have higher temperature and
stagnant air. We’re gonna see an increase in that
ground-level ozone production and a worsening of air quality, okay? So what happen is, as temperature raise, ground-level ozone increases,
okay, so it’s a lung irritant. That ozone is caused by
fossil fuel emissions. And so when you’re in a city and
standing there at the bus stop. You have all of those cars blazing by you,
and a lot of that ozone is being produced when those temperatures
are above a certain threshold, right? The higher that temperature, the more
of that ozone is being triggered, okay, from those emissions coming
out of the tailpipes. Why does this matter? If we have this kind of reduced air
quality, it can trigger asthma attacks, heart attacks. It can worsen respiratory and
cardiovascular diseases. If you’re somebody who has high blood
pressure, diabetes, heart failure, COPD, this can be deathly, okay? This air qualities days can be deathly. So air quality and temperature go hand in
hand, and that’s something we really need to be paying attention to and preparing
for right now and into the future. We’re thinking about air
quality is allergens, remember, I said ozone was one allergens or another. Indiana’s allergy season
is projected to lengthen by about a month over this next half century,
okay. And so that’s because we’re
having a longer growing season. When we have warmer temperatures,
when we have these seasonal shifts. We’re gonna see that frost-free
period when really follows that allergy season lengthen, all right? Few more weeks early in the spring,
a few weeks later in the fall, that’s just more time when we
are exposed to those allergens. But also,
it’s not that we’ll have a longer period, it’s that it’s expected
to be more intense, okay? So ragweed, other plants, they produce
more pollen when they’re grown in warmer, carbon dioxide rich environments,
like we’re expecting in the future. Okay, so insects are another pathway
that we need to be thinking about, both with things like ticks and
mosquitoes. So, in the past, we’ve already seen
that ticks have expanded their range and increased their reproduction rates across
Indiana as our temperatures have warmed. And we expect that trend to continue and
intensify as that warming continue. Similar story with mosquitoes, okay? We have already been seeing
observation that mosquitoes, the population of those mosquito
numbers are going up, up, and up. We have greater spring rainfall,
we have warmer temperatures that creates conditions where mosquitoes and
ticks thrive, okay? And as you start changing things like
the lowest temperature of the year, for example. You’re not gonna be killing
off as many of those insects. You’re gonna be creating conditions
that make it more favorable for those pests over winter. Right now, it’s those lowest
temperatures of the year that are really effective at keeping those
population numbers down, or keeping certain species out
of our area entirely, okay? So as we start to see warmer winters, not
just in the average, but in the extreme. Now we’re talking about the potential. For more types of species
that we don’t want here, that typically aren’t found here to
then become residents here in our state. Okay, so
what we’re showing here on the screen, I’m looking at the lowest
temperature of the year. Again, this is an average
of the past on the left. Some years are gonna be much colder,
other years not as much. And then on the right, that’s that
projection for the middle of the century. So you can see that baseline
that we’re talking about, being warmer by about six degrees. That has real impacts on pest lifecycles. All right,
one more that we’ll run through here, and that has to do with water-based problems. So it doesn’t take a real stretch
of the imagination to see how water can then translate into
impacts on our health. Okay, so we’ve been seeing an increase
in precipitation over time. I’ll show you a slide here in just
a moment that demonstrates that. And with increased precipitation
comes heightened risk of flooding. These trends, again,
are expected to continue and intensify. As you can see here, floods directly
impact human health through physical injury, displacement, property loss,
post-flood mold and fungus. What’s not shown here, things like
the mental health and stress impacts, those are very, very real. People have to deal with those. And we’re expecting them to have to
deal with them more often, okay? So I’ve said we’ve already been
seeing an increase in our rainfall. On average, our state has about five and a half more inches of rainfall now in
a given year than we did a century ago. Okay, and more of that rain
is coming in heavy events. That has implications for
flash flooding, for river flooding, urban flooding, you name it. That’s shown there on the left
that increase in average rainfall. It’s not exactly the same
throughout the whole state. Southern parts of the state
seeing higher rate of change, northeastern part of the state
seeing a lower rate of change, but across the board we
are getting more water. And it translates into our streams, okay? So we have observed over the last
few decades higher streamflow, higher number of days
sitting above a flood stage, more of those extreme rainfall events,
translating into those severe flooding events, that 1 in 500,
1 in 1000 year flood. That strains our storm water systems. That gets into our basement. That creates some pretty serious
rippling effects on our health. And as we go into the future, again, looking at the past compared to
the future, we’re talking about, again, more annual rainfall with
a strong seasonal component. So flooding at a time of the year when
we’re already pretty prone to it. And we’re talking about maybe
reductions in rainfall and water at a time when we actually need it. It has some pretty serious implications
for water quality for, algal blooms. Okay, when we start getting lower
run off in the summertime but higher temperatures that means
something to our water quality. All right, so just to wrap it up here
is our summary of what we’re talking about from that chapter, what does
climate change mean to Indiana health? Well, it means more heat
related injuries and death, reduced air quality,
a longer more intense growing season. We’re gonna be at greater risk for
vector-borne diseases from ticks and mosquitoes and the such. And when we talk about
having more water and changes in the timing of our water,
that’s gonna affect our water quality, flood-related injuries and
death, mental health. And really, for all of these,
it’s the most vulnerable among us that are unfortunately gonna bear
the brunt of these impacts. All right,
I really do appreciate your time. I apologize for having to move so quickly. I’ll be on for the rest of
the webinar if there’s questions, and my contact information is here so
you know how to reach me further. Thank you so much.>>Thanks so much, Melissa. This is an overview, but
I think it’s a great one, and there’s so much more information below that. I wanna just quickly mention
that on some of these issues, there are people at IU who
are doing further research on them. For example ticks, we have researchers
who are studying the movement of ticks around the state,
whether they are disease bearing, and there will be more results coming
from that research in the future. So I will turn it over to Dana now to do
a little bit of a deeper dive into what you’ve just been hearing about how much
hot weather we’re gonna be having.>>Right.
Can everyone see my screen?>>I can see your screen.>>Hi everyone. So I’m Dana Habeeb. I am an environmental urban planner and I am an assistant professor here at
IU in the Department of Informatics. So this talk I will talk
about three main topics. I’ll first really talk about extreme heat
events and the importance that role that plays for public health, and then have
a discussion about vulnerable populations and the role that environmental sensing
can play in making our city smarter and more resilient to our changing climate. So with extreme heat and public
health we see that more people die in the United States to extreme heat
than any other national disaster. We can see this with historical heat
waves, like the heat waves in Chicago in 1990s where over 700 people died in
these events, or the more recent and more intense heat waves, the European heat
wave in 2003 and the Russian heat wave, 2010, where tens of thousands
individuals died during these events. These two heat waves are ranked among two
of the deadliest national disasters for the last century and really illustrates
the important role that extreme heat plays for public health and the importance
for us to be planning for extreme heat. We see that cities are more vulnerable to
heat waves because of what is known as the urban heat island effect. That urban heat island effect occurs
when we see temperatures in cities that are higher than their
surrounding rural areas. And this temperature increase is due
to the way that we are designing and building our cities. We’re displacing natural vegetation with
impervious surfaces such as buildings, roads, and parking lots. And all that goes to elevate
our temperatures in our cities. Not only do we see that temperature is
different between our urban world, but we actually see a big range of
temperature within our cities. And that’s a huge aspect
of our urban form, and how we design our cities really impacts
these micro climates or what we call local climate zones that we can see temperature
change dramatically within a natural city. And so, for example, yesterday here in Bloomington we actually
had a pretty hot day for Bloomington. And when walking through
Indiana University’s campus, if you’re walking through a parking lot,
first, if walking through our Dunn Woods you
were exposed to a higher temperature of over eight degrees Farenheit
just in this very small local area. And so how we design and build our cities
really impacts the exposures that we have, and where we decide to live and work and
passive exposure levels as well. Research that we have shown is that not
only do we see that cities constantly have higher temperatures in the rural areas but
we see that they’re increasing at a faster rate too and that this faster
rate Can be attributed to how we’re developing our cities, how our cities
are sprawling, our development patterns. And so it really goes into how cities
are planning for their future and development patterns that can have
an impact on to our future local climate. Research I’ve done, I’ve looked at heat wave trends across
cities across the United States. And I have looked at heat waves and
how heat waves are changing with regard to their frequency, their duration,
their season, and their intensity. And we see that across United States we
see that heat waves are increasing across all of these characteristics. And from a public health point of view,
it’s important for us to understand heat waves with
regard to these characteristics. Cuz see that these different
characteristics will impact our vulnerability to extreme heat and cause
higher rates of heat related mortalities. So we see that heat waves that are longer
in durations will have higher rates of heat related mortalities,
cuz they don’t allow for adequate recovery periods for people. We also see that heat waves
that are occurring earlier in the year will have higher rates for
heat related mortality. Because it doesn’t give people and individual’s ability to acclimatize to
these higher temperatures in transition from the cooler temperatures
in the springtime. We also are seeing that minimum
temperatures which are considered these high nighttime temperatures can be
a better association with health effects. And this again, is important,
because it’s not just the high daytime temperatures which also
impacts our health. But the high nighttime temperatures as
well, because they don’t give individuals time to recover throughout the day and
overnight. And we see that these high nighttime
temperatures are amplified in cities because of the urban heat and
effect. In this research specifically, we identified vulnerable
cities in the United States. And we identified them by cities that
had change of heat wave characteristic trends involved in national average and
at least two heat wave characteristics. And so we can see that what we are calling
vulnerable cities are distributed across the United States are not just
located in certain areas. And cities that you might not consider
hot like Milwaukee, or Louisville, or Portland, or San Francisco are showing
up as vulnerable cities to extreme heat. San Francisco, for example, has one of
the fastest growing heat wave seasons. And for example, in the year 1960s, heat waves were starting in the middle of
July and by the end of the study period, heatwaves were starting by
the beginning of June, the end of May. So increasing by a month and
a half, and this shift in season, we’re seeing across the board and that
really has an impact on people’s health. It’s important for cities to be able to
understand how their climate is changing. And so the research that Melissa is
doing and presented on with regard to understanding how climate change
in Indiana is hugely important and it’s also important for cities to
understand how their climate is changing. And so as such, the US Global Change
Research Program has taken my methodology and made that publicly available. So that cities can learn and and learn how they can track temperatures
themselves within publicly available data. And to see how key ways are changing
within their individual cities. We see that climate change is making
us more vulnerable to extreme heat. We’re seeing that climate simulations, that places that are having heat
waves can expect more heat waves. And that modelling climate change would,
this is a usual scenarios that’s showing we can expect a doubling of heat related
mortality by the end of the century. Really illustrating that’s it’s
important for us to plan for this extreme heat issue. And we see that 2016 was the hottest
year start to finish and the last five years were
the hottest years on record. So, what can cities do to plan for
extreme heat to heat waves? They can prepare emergency response plans, better planning can actually
save a lot of lives. Increasing things that they can do,
is they can make sure to have adequate staffing, and specifically increasing
staffing earlier in the heat wave season. They can look at their infrastructure and make sure that they have
infrastructure resiliency, so that their infrastructure can actually
handle some extreme heat conditions. Look at public education, public education
awareness is really important to be able to communicate to the public
of their vulnerability of extreme heat. And oftentimes people just don’t realize
that they’re vulnerable to heat and the dangers that they’re in. And then also it’s important for cities to
think about where people have access for cooling. Low income individuals might not have AC
in their homes or can afford to run AC, or we might have power
outages in certain areas. So having cooling centers is really
important for areas when preparing for emergency response to heat. The cities can also manage
their ambient heat. The research that we did,
we looked at climate action plans for cities across the United States. And we found out that nine in ten
US cities were pursuing policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. We found only one in eight were pursuing
policies designed to manage ambient heat. Imagine the ambient heat is really looking
at how we can mitigate the urban heat and effect. And so these strategies are strategies
such as Albedo strategies. And that really looks at how we can
change the reflectivity of surfaces in our built environment. So instead of absorbing all
that heat to reflect it. And so it also has examples of looking
at cool bruce throughout their cities or Los Angeles is doing a lot of movement and investigating ways to do cool
streets in their cities. Cties can also look at waste heat
strategies and look at energy efficiency. Or ways to reduce the waste heat that’s
being emitted into the urban environment. And then cities can also look
at vegetative strategies. Vegetative strategies in areas with
sufficient rainfall have been shown to be one of the most effective ways
to reduce urban heat and effect. And that we can see that
with vegetative strategies, we can reduce it by as much
as 50% in some research. And so different types of vegetative
strategies could be green roofs, such as we could think of
Chicago’s Green Roofs. And we’re seeing cities
that are using policies to really encourage green roofs by
maybe allowing for higher densities, higher floor area ratios, in certain areas
of people are putting green roofs on. Looking at urban forestation, certain
cities are really pushing on having a move of planting large amounts
of trees in their cities. There’s couple cities in the US who
have a million tree campaigns to plant millions of trees in their
city in certain timeframe. But it’s important for
cities to monitor the tree canopy, to look at how much is
changing due to development. And how it’s holding up as well to
climate c changes of plant hardiness. And policies such as tree
ordinances can go a long way in protecting tree canopy densities. And then something that’s really dear
to my heart is really thinking about agriculture and urban agriculture as
ways of bringing vegetation to cities, as a way to mitigate
temperatures in cities. And so with that and some of the research
that I have done is looking at different policies that we can do to try to allow
and promote agriculture in cities. And some of my findings is to show that
we really, when we’re thinking about agriculture as well as other
green infrastructure strategies. That during times extreme heat and heat waves that green infrastructure
needs to be managed appropriately, so that they actually are providing
the cooling benefit that we need. And so we can think about looking at
different water harvesting techniques in order to allow for adequate
management of green infrastructure. And location of green
infrastructure matters, where we decide to implement green
infrastructure can have a huge impact. We can get more bang for our buck by
actually putting green infrastructure in areas of dense urban areas,
of areas with high impervious surfaces. Research that we’ve conducted
also show that by targeting vulnerable populations and their
communities, that we can actually double The same twice as many lives by actually
targeting our interventions in areas for vulnerable populations. And then also when thinking
about green infrastructure, it’s important to think about size and the size of our infrastructure that we’re
putting in, and the benefit from that. So these are some examples that
also just show about international, that places like Paris are implementing. Paris is very susceptible to extreme heat,
and so right now, they are pushing through, putting green
infrastructure throughout their city. And this is in front of all their big
monuments in order to really start reducing their extreme heat. And they’re also having watering and sprinkling systems in order to just
bring water in to the environment. It’s the evaporation of water that
actually does a lot of cooling for air temperatures. And so
when we’re thinking about extreme heat, it’s important that we think
about the vulnerable populations. And to understand that heat hits us
differently depending on our situation. And so we see that the very old or the very young are impacting
more severely by extreme heat. And so cities are actually starting
to develop vulnerability indices in order to identify areas
of high vulnerability. And they are doing this by mapping
vulnerable populations as well as mapping areas of high heat exposures. And so this isn’t just a map show in
Chicago see from below the index, but different things that they’re mapping
is really looking at what does makes a vulnerable population with regards
to looking at age the very elderly, the very young. Looking at income isolation is actually
make someone very vulnerable especially for the elderly, access to air
conditioning, but also pre-existing conditions such as diabetes,
cardiovascular, respiratory disease. These chronic conditions makes it so that our bodies are not able to
respond appropriately to extreme heat. And therefore not able to cool our
bodies when we really need to. So these people also are more
vulnerable to extreme heat and extreme heat mortality. And when we think about Indiana and the number of people that are dealing
with diabetes as a chronic condition. It really begins to make us think
more about the vulnerability of our residents at home as a whole. And then also thinking about exposures,
and so really this goes back into thinking
about the urban heat island and understanding areas of high impervious
surfaces, lack of green space. But also thinking about housing
conditions, whether people are living in mobile homes or whether they have
access to air conditioning or they have perfect ventilation. Also lack of transportation, all these things can really go to
increase our exposure to extreme heat. And so I just wanna wrap up
the discussion by talking about some, how environmental sensing can start making
our cities more prepared for extreme heat, and make our cities smarter or where we’re
seeing move in the Smart Cities movement. And so right now we’re seeing that cities
are putting sensors throughout their built environment. And there’s lots of reasons to collect
local data, local environmental data. And there’s a lot of reasons to
do this for temperature data. As I mentioned earlier, we see that temperatures changed
dramatically within our built environment. So it was very hard to just depend
on one neurological station, to really understand the heat exposures,
that everyone has been exposed to. And so temperature sensors throughout
the urban environment, can lead to better understanding of the heat exposures,
that our communities are being exposed to. People vulnerable populations,
that are being exposed to, as well as planning for
future development, to understand how our development is increasing these
exposures as well over time. So we see examples of the sensor networks
University of Minnesota had extensive one, over 180 sensors looking at the change
of temperature within their environment. Georgia Tech’s Urban Climate Lab has
one of the largest ones now that still running with over 70 sensors that
is throughout Georgia Tech campus, as well as throughout the city of Atlanta. And they’re really using it to look
at different development patterns are increasing temperatures
in these local areas. And Chicago’s Array of Things is
probably one of the most famous and will be one of the largest. When they are installing these modules and the modules are collecting a lot of
different environmental data from air and weather data to sound and video data
in order to gather more information for cities to be more responsive and
hopefully more transparent to people’s environmental conditions,
and hopefully more resilient. And so that just kinda leads me to
the work that I’m working on now here, it’s that I’m really pushing and
looking at environmental sensing as a way to really look at how temperatures
are changing in the built environment by looking at both temperature and
relative humidity. But also looking at soil moisture sensors
as well in order to see if soil moisture are impacting our climate. But I’m also interested in looking at how
our green infrastructure is performing in times of extreme heat, and what do we need
in order to actually implement the correct types of green infrastructure in cities
in order to cool our environment. Also I’m interested in looking
at in the process of ambia of wearable temperatures as well. And to see how we can collect
heat exposure and heat stress or individuals not to try to give them
real time alert when they need them. Thank you very much and
thanks for having me today. And I just wanna thank
the National Science Foundation for sponsoring a lot this research
>>Thank you, Dana. That was really interesting. And I think you gave a really compelling
and broad overview of the kinds of things, the impacts that extreme heat will
have that people may not think of, and also things that we can reasonably do. So I think it is now time for questions. Andrea, do you wanna orchestrate that?>>Sure, so to ask the question,
you’re welcome to unmute yourself, which you can do by hovering
your mouse over the screen. And there’s a microphone which may
currently have a red line through it, but if you click it the red
line will disappear, and you’ll be able to ask the question. If you’re not comfortable with that, you’re also welcome to type
a question into the chat function. Which again can also be accessed by
hovering the mouse over the screen and clicking on Chat. And while people are thinking
if they have questions. I wanted to mention that Dana show
the slide about the Chicago heat wave. There’s an excellent book called,
Heat Wave, that’s all about that Chicago event,
by a man named Eric Kleinberg. But that just tells the story
of what happened there, and how it was that there could be
two neighborhoods side by side. Pretty similar in terms of poverty
levels and demographics, and in one community people really suffered,
and in another community, they didn’t so much, and
there were fewer deaths. And what was it that made the difference
and the takeaway that I had from it was, it’s the community structure, and we’re
neighbors looking out for each other. Or where people living in situations
where they were alone and afraid to open the door when somebody
knocked on it because of crime and that sort of thing. So really interesting,
very interesting book. If you read it, I suggest you get the
newest version which has a new prologue, updated to reflect later
climate information. So we have one question that’s come in,
and I believe this one will be for Dana, but mostly you’re
welcome to comment on it too. And Kim or others,
if you have comments, please speak up. We’re wondering if you could speak
a little bit more about specific policies that can be adopted within local governments to help address the different design issues that are leading to
higher temperatures in communities?>>Yes, so there’s a lot of different
things that communities can do. I mean, one aspect we see that sprawling
cities have higher urban heat island effects in non-sprawling. So one I did is is also to think about
the overall containment at the city. But then it’s also looking at how we
can bring green infrastructure into environments? And so those are the two that really
talked about with regard to albedo and bring infrastructure. And so tree ordinances can go a long way,
with regard to protecting tree canopy. But also, there’s other types of zoning
policies that cities are starting to use, such as green area ratio policies, which are making property owners have
a certain ratio of green area, and it allows them to decide what’s
the best way they can do that. So they wanna put a green roof on,
or not have a driveway, and so those are policies to look at
the different private ways. And so then also, it’s what types of, for other private investments,
is thinking about how you can promote,
where you’re promoting development. And then maybe promote more developments, such as higher densities in areas,
or higher floor area ratios, especially if you have an area
that is a well sought-after area. Then you can allow for some higher density
in those areas if they provide for more infrastructure that is
going to cool that environment. And so with the green roofs, or
a higher green area ratio, or larger tree preservation programs,
and then in general conservation too. So I think there’s a lot that we can do,
and then even, I think it also depends on what types
of strategy she wants to bring in. So then there’s a whole different policies
that we can start thinking about with agriculture and urban agriculture, and how’s our zoning policies promoting
agriculture in our cities? Or do they even deal with
those with agriculture as a green infrastructure strategy?>>I think too, I mean, this is an area of
great interest, because one of the ways you can be most impactful is to get good
policies embedded into city ordinances, and comprehensive plan guidelines, because
then they just become what cities follow. There are a number of efforts to try
to bring best practices together, and cities are interested in knowing
what other cities have done in that space that [INAUDIBLE] out
there on any particular thing. Drake [INAUDIBLE] a lot
of information together, it’s something that I’m
interested [INAUDIBLE] to package in an accessible way for
Indiana communities. But Andrea, maybe we could,
in the post webinar message, we could send a link to
the Drake [INAUDIBLE]. And I don’t know if they’re
doing best practices, sort of chunk by chunk different,
subject matters. So I don’t know if they’ve
hit this one yet, but. So there’s-
>>[CROSSTALK]>>Matt Moser asked a question that i think it’s really for Melissa, is there any research to quantify amounts
of ozone precursors by mid-century? Or better yet, expected number of
high ozone days by mid-century? Excellent question.>>So I know those were part of
the discussions when the team was working on their report that specifically came up,
and I’m guessing that since it was not in
the report, it was not readily available. But that doesn’t mean
somebody’s not working on it. I personally do not know that
I think Gabe Philipelli, the lead author would probably be the best
person to follow-up with on that question, or if there’s anybody else
on the call who knows that?>>Well, I know that a lot of urban heat,
I guess he is experienced in urban areas. But what about in more rural areas? And then I think you mentioned that you
have some research related to the role of agriculture and exposure. Could you talk a little bit about that,
and then maybe you have
anything you want to add? That would be great.>>So I mean,
we see with a type of land cover change, that you can see a change in
local regional temperatures. And so depending on that natural
vegetation that was in place, depending on the practice,
what we’re using that land for, you can see that world temperatures
can also increase in those areas. And so whether it’s going
directly towards agriculture, agriculture that’s irrigated
can show some positive impacts. But oftentimes,
you see films that are just are at certain times have a lot of crops, and
other times are just bare soil. And so you can see a lot of that
fluctuation because of land too. So we can think about that as well,
with regard to the urban heat element, those same principles
apply to rural areas. Is how are we changing that land cover? And how is that impacting temperatures? And then also,
when thinking about rural areas, we can think about vulnerability
differently as well. And so if people have less
access to cooling centers, or less access to public education,
or awareness, or less access for transportation
to get away from their home, and they don’t have air conditioning. So I think we also have different
types of vulnerability, due to these in the world
environment as well. And so one thing to think about
is different types of homes, like mobile homes as well,
can become very vulnerable areas, and housing structures for communities. And so that’s something that we
definitely don’t wanna overlook, because they’re in the world environment.>>[CROSSTALK]
>>I’m sorry, go ahead.>>I was gonna say,
just to add to that this is Melissa. Just to add to that,
not only is the land use and land cover playing a role
directly with temperatures, but also with the moisture levels and
the evaporation. And that can certainly have a broader
impact on the whole area, and not just in rural areas. So thinking about our summertime
temperatures here in Indiana, they’re not going up as much in that
absolute high temperature of the day. And there’s big components of that due
to the intense corn growth that we have, and how those increased humidities tend
to moderate the daytime temperature. But it also has an effect on
moderating that nighttime temperature. And so we’ve been seeing a pretty strong
increase in our overnight lows in the historical record. Whereas, we haven’t been seeing that
same strong increase in daytime high temperatures. Well those both have very
serious impacts on health. So you’re sort of shifting the burden
there of the type of health impact, or the way that the health
impact is happening. But you’re Still getting it right, so
you’re still not going to be cooling off as much during those intense heat events,
which means you’re not recovering as much, and that surrounding land youth is playing
a role too with the moisture component. So it’s not always just the the color and
the texture and all of that for daytime heating. There’s a moisture component at play too.>>So I I for one was not familiar with
the importance of nighttime temperatures and the public health impacts of increased
heat, and maybe I just missed the boat somewhere but if I’m a bellwether,
then I think a lot of people don’t understand that it’s really important
that we cool down at night as well too. Most people, I think, could sympathize
with lying, sweating in your bed, and kicking off the covers, even when you
have the air conditioning going at night. We do have another questions about
the do-it-yourself resilience index and the November webinar. The question is does the do-it-yourself
resilience index apply to places outside Indiana, and I’ll respond briefly. It could is the answer. This tool is highly tailored to Indiana. We’re using Information and data from the Indiana Climate
Change Impacts Assessment and other Indiana-specific
databases that will provide a vulnerability profile that
is specific in Indiana. And then the worksheets that each
community gets will be related to the particular vulnerabilities
that they have. So for example If It’s a river city and
they’re very subject to flooding, they will have questions that
relate to that and If they’re not, they won’t have to answer those questions
because it’s not relevant to them. That said, it’s gonna be as much
as we can do to get this Indiana focus tool out and in people’s hands and
use it in November. That said, the worksheets that we’ve
developed are perfectly appropriate for anybody to use. And we’re pretty excited about
them because we think they highlight some of the key priority things
that people should be thinking about in order to determine their
resilience to heat and flooding and
the things that all come from that. So if you’re interested in it, please sign
up for the webinar and learn about it and we’d be happy to follow up with you
individually if you think it’s useful. So I think we’re done right on time. I wanna thank our speakers again, Melissa
Wilhelm, Dana Habib and our speaker and welcomer and new sponsor for these
health-related ones Kim Erwin very much. Thank you all for joining. We’re going to do more of this next month
on different aspects of health impacts and climate change. For those of you that are on the line
who work in the public-health area, might be from a local health department or
some kind of organisation. I and I know Andrea would too,
greatly appreciate your feedback on the kinds of issues that you would
find more helpful to learn about, because one of the great things about
being located at a huge university is that we have access to a lot of
experts on a lot of different topics. And we wanna provide information
that is of most interest and most use to you, so with that,
I will say thank you one more time. Andrea, any last words?>>Not from me. Thanks to all of you for joining us.>>All right,
have a good day everybody, stay cool!>>Take care, bye.>>Good bye.


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