Topic 4 5 Unit 2 Routes of Penetration of Pesticides
16
February

By Adem Lewis / in , , /


Dear students, my name is Yordan Simeonov
and in this video presentation I would like to give you basic information
about the danger of poisoning by pesticides entering the human organism
This danger depends to a high degree on the routes of penetration
The physiological routes of entering include penetration by ingestion, by inhalation
and by dermal contact The ingestion of pesticides could happen in two
circumstances, either by accidental ingestion of pesticides in non-standard
soft drinks, oil, wine or soft drinks or by consumption of recently sprayed fruits or vegetables
The general recommendation and the list of the basic prerequisites
in order to reduce the accidental and professional pesticides poisoning by
ingestion are presented The cases of happening of inhalation of pesticides
such as the penetration of fine powder preparations in the respiratory system
or by inhalation of aerosol drops during spraying of water preparations of pesticides
are presented also The cases of poisoning by inhalation of
fumigants are discussed The third in order of presentation but of leading
toxicological importance is the dermal route of penetration of pesticides into
a human body The three main cases of local dermal
effects are: skin irritating effect, sensory irritation effect and skin
sensitizing effect This is the title page for presentations
of the Erasmus project TOXOER Learning Toxicology through Open Educational Resources
And now let us go back on the topic and include some more detail
The poisoning by pesticides entering the human organism depends to a
high degree on the routes of penetration The conditions of pesticide application
determines the patterns of penetrations in the organism The physiological routes
of pesticides entry rank in an ascending order as by ingestion, by inhalation or by
dermal penetration By ingestion: accidental ingestion
connected with the transfer of pesticides in non-standard bottles of
soft drinks, oil, wine or beer and left at an accessible place in the farmer’s home Hence children are often the victims in
such circumstances The similar mistake might occur at the working place
Acute poisoning with pesticides by ingestion occur also in cases of intentional suicides and murder
Second, by consumption of recently sprayed fruits or vegetables
without observing the necessary waiting periods is the cause for single or group poisoning
Pesticide poisoning occurs when the ambient air carries a cloud of drops
from a neighborhood plantation during pesticide spraying, most often
performed by airplane In such cases the pesticide poisoning can be due both to
consumption of sprayed fruits and vegetables and also to dermal penetration
Heavy poisoning can also happen when consuming vegetables from a
glass greenhouse, or when agricultural production is harvested earlier for the market
This is a photo of the clouds of drops created by airplane spraying of pesticides
In order to reduce the accidental and professional pesticide poisoning by
ingestion, the basic perquisites are: To observe hygienic requirements and norms,
To keep the proper storage of pesticides, To follow strictly the rules
and practices of pesticide application, To avoid meals at the places of
preparation of pesticide solutions To prohibit eating, drinking of water and
smoking during the application of pesticides By inhalation:
Fine powder pesticide preparations or wettable powder enter the respiratory system
at the time of transfer to other vessels in windy weather and in case of dry
treatment of seeds with powders The highly toxic pesticides are sold in granules
to reduce the dangers During spraying with water solutions
the main part of the aerosol drops are of size greater than 4-5 microns
They settle in the nasal cavities and in the trachea, so the relative share of aerosols
that reach the lungs is small Without a protective mask the penetration of
pesticides in the body by inhalation is very easy Danger from intake by the
respiratory system exists when working in a direction opposite to the wind,
when finding oneself in a cloud created by airplane spraying, while working with
pesticides in closed premises, by desinfection of seed in stores for food and fodder,
by spraying in glass houses, by cleaning spilled powder-like preparations
All the upper described cases prove the obligatory use of
respective masks and other equipment according to the instructions on the
label of the preparation By Dermal penetration:
Comparison of the inhalation route of penetration with the dermal route of penetration
shows the leading importance of the dermal route In some cases the exposition through the
skin is from 100 to 1000 times higher as compared to that through
the respiratory system The danger of penetration through a dermal contact
is higher when the application is by hand sprayer in comparison to application by
tractor or by airplanes Local dermal effects of pesticides:
These effects are dependent on the type of pesticide used in each particular case of application
The three main dermal effects are: Skin irritating effect,
Sensory irritation effect and Skin sensitizing effect
The skin irritating effect, when high concentrations of herbicides or fungicides irritate the skin
and the mucous membrane of the eyes and the respiratory tract These changes occur
in the first hours after careless application of the pesticide
Sensory irritation effect, in cases of careless preparation of working solutions of some
insecticides of the group of synthetic pyrethroids during spraying in glass
houses and stores without ventilation or spraying against the wind
The penetration into the organism occurs and causes a feeling of skin burning and irritation
around the eyes, the nose and cheeks Skin sensitizing effect, the chemical of some
active ingredients is the reason for the formation of specific antibodies in the worker’s organism
Most often the antibodies are cellular but in some cases serum
antibodies are also produced A considerable part of the fungicides and
insecticides are known as professional allergens According to statistical data
25 million people receive an incidental poisoning by pesticides worldwide every year
ranging from headache to death At the end of the presentation is the
closing page of the presentations of TOXOER project where you can see the logos of the
participating educational institutions from 7 European countries


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